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study on the later middle ages.


cast out of the church

pope gregory VII

a pope who came to power in rome in 1073.

Emperor henry IV

Trouble arose when Gregory disapproved of a bishop chosen by the whole Roman


a long series of wars between christians and muslims in southwest asia.

holy land

region where jesus had lived, preached, and died

pope urban II

medieval pope, called on christians to launch the first crusade.

King richard I

King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199, known as Richard the Lionheart


leader of the muslim forces


church officials

religious order

a group of people who dedicate their lives to religion and follow common rules.

francis of assisi

italian saint who encouraged people to be kind to others and founded the franciscan order.


people who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public

thomas aquinas

a dominican philospher, and a teacher at the univiersity of paris.

natural law

law that governed how the world operated.

magna carta

document listing rights that the king couldnot ignore


the lawmaking body that governs england today

hundred years' war

a long conflict between england and france

black death

A deadly plague that swept through europe between 1347 and 1351

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