Chapter 2 Key Terms - Bioenergetics

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acetyl coenzyme A
the compound that forms the common entry point into the Krebs cycle for the oxidation of carbohydrate and fat
activation energy
the initial energy required to start a chemical reaction
adenosine diphosphate
a high-energy phosphate coound from which ATP is formed
aerobic metabolism
a process occuring in the mitochondria that uses oxygen to produce energy. Also known as cellular respiration
anaerobic metabolism
the production of energy in the absence of oxygen
ATP-PCr system
the short-term, anaerobic energy system that maintains ATP levels. Breakdown of phosphocreatine frees Pi, which then combines with ADP to form ATP
bioenergetics
term given to the study of metabolic processes that yield or consume energy
beta-oxidation
the first step in fatty acid oxidation, in which fatty acids are broken into separate two-carbon units of acetic acid, each of which is then converted to acetyl-CoA
carbohydrate
an organic compound formed from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. includes starches, sugars, and cellulose
catabolism
the tearing down of body tissue; the destructive phase of metabolism
creatine kinase
the enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of PCr to creatine and Pi
cytochrome
a series of iron-containing proteins that facilitate the transport of electrons within the electron transport chain
electron transport chain
a series of chemical reactions that convert the hydrogen ion generated by glocolysis and the Krebs cycle into water and produce energy for oxidative phosphorylation
enzyme
protein molecule that speeds up reactions by lowering their energy of activation
free fatty acids
the components of fat that are used by the body for metabolism
gluconeogenesis
the conversion of protein or fat into glucose
glucose
six-carbon sugar that is the promary form of carbohydrate used for metabolism
glycogen
the form of carbohydrate stored in the body, found predominantly in the muscles and liver
glycogenolysis
the conversion of glycogen to glucose
glycolysis
the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid
kilo calorie
the equivalent of 1000 calories
Krebs cycle
a series of chemical reactions that involve the complete oxidation of acetyl CoA and produce 2 mol of ATP, along with hydrogen and carbon, which combine with oxygen to form H2O and CO2
rate-limiting enzyme
an enzyme found early in a metabolic pathway that determines the rate of the pathway
substrate
basic fuel source- such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats
triglycerides
the body's most concentrated energy source and the form in which most fats are stored in the body
lipogenesis
the process of converting protein into fatty acids
lipolysis
the process of breaking down triglyceride to its basic units to be used for energy
metabolism
all energy-producing and energy-using processes within the body
mitochondria
cellular organelles that generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation
negative feedback system
the primary mechanism through which the endocrine system maintains homeostasis
oxidative phosphorylation
mitochondrial process that uses oxygen and high-energy electrons to produce ATP and water
oxidative system
the body's most complex energy system, which generates energy by diassembling fuels with the aid of oxygen and has a very high energy yield
phosphocreatine
an energy-rich compound that plays a critical role in providing energy for muscle action by maintaining ATP concentration
phosphofructokinase
a key rate-limiting enzyme of the anaerobic glycolytic energy system
phosphorylation
the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule