Health and Human Development - VCE units 3&4
Exact definitions from VCAA study design.
Terms in this set (68)
'A complete state of physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the abscence of disease or infirmity.' (WHO, 1946)
'An individual's or population's overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.' (AIHW, 2008)
Physical dimensions of health
Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and it's systems, and includes the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness.
Social dimensions of health
Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way.
Mental dimensions of health
'State of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.' (WHO, 2009)
'An indication of how long a person can expect to live, it is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change.' (AIHW, 2008)
Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)
A measure of burden of disease based on life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality.
Burden Of Disease
A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries, specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the DALY.
Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
A measure of burden of disease, one DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature death and time lived with illness, disease or injury.
Years Of Life Lost (YLL)
The fatal burden of disease of a population, defined as years of life lost due to death.
Years Of Life Lost Due To Disability (YLD)
The non-fatal component of the burden of disease and is a measurement of the healthy years lost due to disease or injury.
The number of deaths caused by a particular disease, illness or other environmental factor.
Under-five mortality rate
'The number of deaths of children under five years of age per 1000 live births.' (WHO, 2008)
'Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group.' (AIHW, 2008)
'The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.' (AIHW, 2008)
The number or rate of new cases of a particular condition during a specific time.
Biomedical Model Of Health
Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care practised by doctors and/or health professional and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease.
Social Model Of Health
A conceptual framework within which improvements in health and well-being are achieved by directing effort towards addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health. The model is based on the understanding that in order for health gains to occur, social, economic and environmental determinants must be addressed.
Ottawa Charter For Health Promotion
An approach to health developed by the World Health Organisation that attempts to reduced inequalities in health. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was developed from the social model of health and defines health promotion as 'the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health' (WHO 1998). The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion which are enabling, mediating and advocacy.
Values that underpin Australia's health system
The values are effective, appropriate, efficient, responsive, accessible, safe, continuous, capable, sustainable.
Activities aimed at improving health and preventing disease by enabling people to increase control over and improve their health.
Australia's universal health care system that aims to improve the access to healthcare for all Australians and to provide adequate healthcare at little or no cost to all Australians in need of treatment, regardless of age or income.
Private Health Insurance
A health policy that individuals and families can purchase to cover health services (e.g. optical and dental) not covered by Medicare.
The provision of aid from the government of one country to the government of another country.
Aid that is provided by governments of countries and is distributed by a governing body such as the United Nations.
Emergency aid/Humanitarian assistance
Immediate assistance that is provided to a country during times of conflict or natural disaster.
Non-government organisations (NGOs)
Legally constituted organisations without participation or representation of any government.
Official development assistance (ODA)
Financial assistance provided by donor government agencies to developing countries or to multilateral aid agencies. Also known as aid.
Determinants Of Health
'Factors that raise or lower a level of health in a population or individual. Determinants of health help explain or predict trends in health and why some groups have better or worse health than others.' Determinants can be classified in many ways such as biological, behavioural and social. (AIHW, 2006).
Factors relating to the body that impact on health, such as genetics, hormones, body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, birth weight.
Actions or patterns of living of an individual or a group that impact on health, such as smoking, sexual activity, participation in physical activity, eating practices.
Aspects of society and the social environment that impacts on health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support.
National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs)
A collaborative initiative endorsed by the Commonwealth and all State and Territory governments. The NHPA initiative seeks to focus the health sector's attention on diseases or conditions that have a major impact on the health of Australians. The NHPAs represent the disease groups with the largest burden of disease and potential costs (direct, indirect and intangible) to the Australian community.
Costs that can be accurately qualified (monetary) and result from the prevention, treatment or diagnosis of disease or illness.
Costs incurred by an individual, family or community such as impact on social life or work.
Costs that cannot be associated with dollar value such as quality of life and emotional costs.
Glycaemic Index (GI)
The ranking of carbohydrates according to the different ways they behave in the body in relation to blood glucose levels. Eating foods that have a low-GI ranking can assist with long-term health and sustainable weight loss.
Organic and inorganic substances found in food that are required by the body for growth and maintenance of body systems.
Any nutrient that increases the chances of developing a certain condition.
Any nutrients that act to protect a person from a certain condition.
The interconnectedness of the world through the transfer of goods, services, capital, people and information.
A country that has progressed adequately with regard to economic, mortality and demographic indicators.
A country that has not progressed adequatley with regard to economic, mortality and demographic indicators.
Rural and remote populations
Rural and remote describes those areas situated outside any city or metropolitan (urban) area that has a population of greater than 100 000 people.
Sometimes referred to as social class, the key elements of income, education level, employment status and occupation type determine a person's socioeconomic status.
Creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. It is about expanding people's choices and enhancing capabilities (the range of things people can do and be), having access to knowledge, health and a decent standard of living, and participating in the life of their community and decisions affecting their lives. (adapted from the UN Development Programme, 1990)
'Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.' (UN, 1992)
The WHO classifies countries into five mortality strata based on the mortality rates of children under five years of age and adults.
- Mortality strata A - very low child mortality and low adult mortality.
- Mortality strata B - low child mortality and low adult mortality.
- Mortality strata C - low child mortality and high adult mortality.
- Mortality strata D - high child mortality and high adult mortality.
- Mortality strata E - high child mortality and very high adult mortality.
Human Development Index
A measurement of human development which combines indicators of life expectancy, education levels and income. The Human Development Index provides a single statistic which can be used as a reference for both social and economic development. (UN Development Programme, 1990)
'The state in which all persons obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate, safe food regularly through local non-emergency sources.' (VicHealth, 2008)
Sustainable human development
A process of people striving to achieve their full potential, lead productive lives, expand their choices and meet their needs without compromising the opportunities for future generations.
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Purpose: To reduce the level of poverty within developing countries through the development of strategies to promote employment opportunities, particularly for women and young people.
Importance: Poverty has an enormous impact on morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries.
Reasons: Poverty has an impact on morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries.
2. Achieve universal primary education
Purpose: To provide both boys and girls in developing countries with access to primary schooling to improve literacy and numeracy skills. It also offers opportunities to gain the skills and knowledge to engage in health-promoting behaviours.
Importance: Education promotes literacy, which leads to greater employment prospects, thereby increasing levels of income.
Reasons: Education promotes literacy, which leads to greater employment prospects, thereby increasing levels of income.
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
Purpose: To raise the socioeconomic status of women in developing countries through ensuring that females have equal access to education.
Importance: Females are generally less likely than males to have access to education.
Reasons: To make women more equal and educated.
4. Reduce child mortality
Purpose: To reduce under five mortality rate (U5MR)
Importance: The vast majority of deaths of children under the age of five are due to causes that could be prevented or treated by inexpensive means.
Reasons: Most of the causes of death can be reduced with inexpensive medical treatment that they didn't have and we can supply.
5. Improve maternal health
Purpose: Improve maternal health by reducing the number of deaths of women during pregnancy and childbirth.
Importance: Improving maternal health is important for both the mother and the child, as well as the entire community.
Reasons: To reduce the likelihood of complications during childbirth and pregnancy.
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Purpose: To reduce mortality and mortality ratio because of HIV/AIDS and other diseases like malaria by 2015.
Importance: HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases such as tuberculosis are the focus of this Millennium Development Goal as they are largely preventable conditions that contribute significantly to the global burden of disease.
Reasons: HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases are the focus as a goal because they can be prevented.
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
Purpose: It is to ensure environmental sustainability, for our health and human development we must have a quality physical environment.
Importance: The achievement of environmental sustainability requires the maintenance of a stable environment that provides resources such as fresh water, food, clean air, wood, fisheries and productive soils, and that protects people from floods, droughts, pest infestations and disease.
Reasons:To help the developing countries to have a sustainable and stable environment that provides adequate resources.
8. Develop a global partnership for development
Purpose: Address the needs of the least developed countries through the provision of official development assistance (aid)
Importance: Through developing global partnerships, developed countries are able to assist developing countries in improving their economies to better meet the needs of their people, thereby improving standards.
Reasons: Through developing global partnerships, developed countries are able to assist developing countries in improving their economies to better meet their needs of their people, thereby improving standards.
The increasing complexity of behaviour patterns used in relationships with other people.
Twelve to eighteen years of age; however, it should be acknowledge that classifications for the stage of youth can differ across agencies.
Vic Health mission
To build the capabilities of organisations, communities and individuals in ways that:
- change social, economic, cultural and physical environments to improve health for all Victorians
- strengthen the understanding and the skills of individuals in ways that support their efforts to achieve and maintain health
Vic Health priorities
Priorities: reduce smoking, improve nutrition, reducing harm from alcohol, increasing physical, activity, increasing social and economic participation, reducing harm from UV exposure
Ottawa Charter action areas
Build healthy public policy
Create supportive environments
Strengthen community action
Develop personal skills
Reorient health services
Social model of health principles
Addresses the broader determinants of health
Acts to reduce social inequities
Empowers individuals and communities
Acts to enable access to health care
Involves intersectorial collaboration
The health of populations in a worldwide context that go beyond the perspectives and concerns of individual countries. Global health is about an international collaborative approach to achieving equity in health for all people worldwide.
United Nations (UN) action areas
World peace and security
Social and economic development
WHO core functions
1. Providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed.
2. Shaping the health research agenda and dissemination of valuable knowledge.
3. Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation.
4. Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options.
5. Providing technical support to countries
6. Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends.