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40 terms

Western Civilizations

The African Origins of Humanity Agrarian-Urban Centers of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean
STUDY
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The skull of Toumaï dates from 6 to 7 million years ago and may possibly represent an ________ stage of human evolution
ape-hominin split
Of the two earliest human forms that are known, Orrorin tugensis and australopiths, which is probably the ancestor of modern humans?
Orrorin tugensis
Homo habilis was the first early hominin to add what item to its diet?
meat
One of the first tools created by hominins was _____, used to remove meat from scavenged remains
scraper
Paleoanthropologist use various measurements to distinguish Homo erectus from earlier hominins, including increased brain capacity and what changes in the ratio of arm to leg length?
Arms are shorter in relation to the legs
What stage of hominin evolution seems to have first discovered how to control fire?
Homo erectus
Upon emerging out of Africa, early hominins first spread to what other continent?
Southwest Asia
Which of the following regions was the last to present evidence of hominin migration?
Japan
What distinguishes Homo florensiensis from other descendants of Homo erectus?
They were much shorter
The Levallois are of Paris provided the first evidence of what technological development?
spear points
Homo sapiens first used ______ for clothing, before they learned to weave
fur & skins
even before agriculture was developed, early humans used grindstones and stored grain. T/F?
True
The earliest trade item that has been identified was what material, used to make tools?
Obsidian
In the nineteenth century, anthropologists such as Bachofen believed that human communities went through a cycle of gender relations, beginning with men and women sharing work, then to which a male-dominated society, then to a female-dominated society, then to a gender-balanced society again. T/F?
False
Homo sapiens buried their dead with what kind of grave gift?
jewelry
before it separated about 100 million years ago, Australia was part of a land mass known as Sahul and connected to what other continents
Americas
Aborigines of Australia developed the bow and arrow for hunting independently of other early humans in Africa T/F?
False
Clan within Australian Aborigine tribe were associations based on
marriage partnerships
which members of the Australian Aborigine tribe performed the rituals associated with the Dreamtime?
respected elders
Australian Aborigines developed agriculture c. 10,000 BCE T/F?
False
aborigine settlements on the north coast of Australia traded w/people on what island for knives, pottery, and cloth
Timor
The Bradshaws of northwest Australia are examples of what aspect of Aborigine culture?
rock paintings
what stage of evolutionary development to Neanderthals and modern humans have in common
homo erectus
although possessing very different cultures, and the fact that Neanderthals were smaller, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens did interbreed T/F?
true
The oldest known figurines made by humans, from Germany, were carved in what material
ivory
although seminomadic foragers, Paleolithic peoples invented fire ceramics to use them for what items?
small figurines
bison human hybrid; human, bird, fox, antler hybrid; clothing of robes and hats; bull hunt with injured human
chauvet, trois-freres, la marche, lascaux
paleolithic peoples used swan bones for what creative purpose
flutes
archaeologist J. David Lewis-Williams theorizes that the painted caves of Paleolithic era were used
for shamanistic spiritual rituals
in addition to the obvious decrease in temperatures that occurred during the Ice Age of c. 23,000 years ago, what other major climate change began then?
gradual increase in dryness around the equator
during the ice age, the __ was the 1st animal domesticated by humans.
dog
during the ice age, humans began to use canoes made of bone or wood frames covered w/
animal skins
during the ice age, paleolithic peoples used what to produce the 1st woven cloth?
wool
linked by temporary land bridges that existed in the ice age: asia, korea, malaysia
n. america, japan, indonesia
material evidence for human habitation in eastern Siberia during the Ice Age thawing period, c. 16,500-12,500 years ago, includes
amber beads
clovis points are used as evidence to date the presence of humans in what area?
america
what has the discovery of human settlements at Monte Verde in Chile and Taima Taima in Venezuela done to the theories of when humans first arrive in the Americas?
pushed the dates back by several thousand years, to before 11,500 BCE
recent theories that humans first settled in the Americas 40,000 to 30,000 years agi are based in what kind of evidence?
linguistic studies
based on anatomical features, the fossil remains known as "spirit cave mummy" is believed ti be a descendant of what people?
Ainu of Japan
Kennewick Man was discovered in what part of the Americas?
US