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The African Origins of Humanity Agrarian-Urban Centers of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean

The skull of Toumaï dates from 6 to 7 million years ago and may possibly represent an ________ stage of human evolution

ape-hominin split

Of the two earliest human forms that are known, Orrorin tugensis and australopiths, which is probably the ancestor of modern humans?

Orrorin tugensis

Homo habilis was the first early hominin to add what item to its diet?


One of the first tools created by hominins was _____, used to remove meat from scavenged remains


Paleoanthropologist use various measurements to distinguish Homo erectus from earlier hominins, including increased brain capacity and what changes in the ratio of arm to leg length?

Arms are shorter in relation to the legs

What stage of hominin evolution seems to have first discovered how to control fire?

Homo erectus

Upon emerging out of Africa, early hominins first spread to what other continent?

Southwest Asia

Which of the following regions was the last to present evidence of hominin migration?


What distinguishes Homo florensiensis from other descendants of Homo erectus?

They were much shorter

The Levallois are of Paris provided the first evidence of what technological development?

spear points

Homo sapiens first used ______ for clothing, before they learned to weave

fur & skins

even before agriculture was developed, early humans used grindstones and stored grain. T/F?


The earliest trade item that has been identified was what material, used to make tools?


In the nineteenth century, anthropologists such as Bachofen believed that human communities went through a cycle of gender relations, beginning with men and women sharing work, then to which a male-dominated society, then to a female-dominated society, then to a gender-balanced society again. T/F?


Homo sapiens buried their dead with what kind of grave gift?


before it separated about 100 million years ago, Australia was part of a land mass known as Sahul and connected to what other continents


Aborigines of Australia developed the bow and arrow for hunting independently of other early humans in Africa T/F?


Clan within Australian Aborigine tribe were associations based on

marriage partnerships

which members of the Australian Aborigine tribe performed the rituals associated with the Dreamtime?

respected elders

Australian Aborigines developed agriculture c. 10,000 BCE T/F?


aborigine settlements on the north coast of Australia traded w/people on what island for knives, pottery, and cloth


The Bradshaws of northwest Australia are examples of what aspect of Aborigine culture?

rock paintings

what stage of evolutionary development to Neanderthals and modern humans have in common

homo erectus

although possessing very different cultures, and the fact that Neanderthals were smaller, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens did interbreed T/F?


The oldest known figurines made by humans, from Germany, were carved in what material


although seminomadic foragers, Paleolithic peoples invented fire ceramics to use them for what items?

small figurines

bison human hybrid; human, bird, fox, antler hybrid; clothing of robes and hats; bull hunt with injured human

chauvet, trois-freres, la marche, lascaux

paleolithic peoples used swan bones for what creative purpose


archaeologist J. David Lewis-Williams theorizes that the painted caves of Paleolithic era were used

for shamanistic spiritual rituals

in addition to the obvious decrease in temperatures that occurred during the Ice Age of c. 23,000 years ago, what other major climate change began then?

gradual increase in dryness around the equator

during the ice age, the __ was the 1st animal domesticated by humans.


during the ice age, humans began to use canoes made of bone or wood frames covered w/

animal skins

during the ice age, paleolithic peoples used what to produce the 1st woven cloth?


linked by temporary land bridges that existed in the ice age: asia, korea, malaysia

n. america, japan, indonesia

material evidence for human habitation in eastern Siberia during the Ice Age thawing period, c. 16,500-12,500 years ago, includes

amber beads

clovis points are used as evidence to date the presence of humans in what area?


what has the discovery of human settlements at Monte Verde in Chile and Taima Taima in Venezuela done to the theories of when humans first arrive in the Americas?

pushed the dates back by several thousand years, to before 11,500 BCE

recent theories that humans first settled in the Americas 40,000 to 30,000 years agi are based in what kind of evidence?

linguistic studies

based on anatomical features, the fossil remains known as "spirit cave mummy" is believed ti be a descendant of what people?

Ainu of Japan

Kennewick Man was discovered in what part of the Americas?


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