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Sociology Exam 2 Part 3
Terms in this set (82)
refers to a violation of norms
Deviance is _______________: there is no act or
behavior that is inherently deviant; what
is deviant to some is not to others.
Society reacts to it
It is not the act itself that makes an action
deviant, but rather how __________________________________________
people who violate rules,
whether the infraction is minor
(jaywalking) or serious (murder)
make social life possible by making behavior predictable.
Thus, forms of _____________________(formal and
informal means of enforcing norms) are
necessary for social order.
_____________________ (e.g. smiles or formal
awards) are used to reward conformity.
__________________________________________reflect disapproval of a
particular behavior (e.g. frowns for breaking a
folkway; imprisonment for breaking a more).
an extremely effective sanction,
particularly when used by members of a
primary group or small community
Harold Garfinkel noted the effectiveness of __________________________________________
: formal events that
describe and label someone as deviant.
2. Mutual Sanctioning
4. Separation of activities
Society is stable because of the
following sources of social order:
We learn cultural symbols which help in
interaction, we learn appropriate modes
of conduct and norms, and we learn
appropriate behavior for roles and
groups which we belong.
Taking the role of the other and the
looking glass self both allow us to
formally and informally sanction each
other's behavior (i.e. through the norm
maintain social order by helping
us categorize and typify others; maintain predictability over
Separation of activities
Social order is maintained by defining
boundaries that compartmentalize role
behaviors and normative expectations (family and work, church and casinos)
1. Population size
2. Social differentiation
Social disorder is a function of three forces:
Large ____________________ are difficult to control as face-to-face
encounters become more problematic; The larger a __________________, the weaker the emotional
attachment among members; The larger a __________________, the more likely sub-cultures
will form which define themselves as different from
regards the process of
creating differences in culture,
occupational roles, income, family
structure, economic arrangements, etc.; The more __________________ a society, the
greater the likelihood of social disorder.
The more a population grows and a
surplus of resources emerges, the
greater a population's ____________________ among
members; The greater the _________________, the greater
the likelihood of social disorder
____________________ explanations of deviance focus
on genetic predispositions.
____________________ explanations of deviance
focus on personality disorders.
explanations of deviance
search for causes outside the individual; Crime is a violation of norms written into law,
and each society has its own laws against
certain types of behavior, but socialization,
subcultural group memberships, or social class
may influence some people to break norms
more than others.
cite that crime and
deviance exists in all societies,
therefore they must serve some vital
purpose or function.
_________________ serves to maintain
boundaries regarding right and
Deviance promotes __________________________________________
by reemphasizing the norms and
values of a society; Members of a society need to know what is deviant so that individuals know what not to do; This strengthens collective sentiments
against infringement of norms.
Deviance is a mechanism for
promoting ____________________; Where crime exists collective
sentiments will be flexible to take on a
new form; Crime sometimes assists in determining
the form of collective sentiments
Robert K. Merton proposed _____________________________________ (also called anomie theory) to
explain deviance; a functionalist theory of
Merton's Strain Theory
All societies have culturally defined goals and various legitimate means to achieve such goals; High rates of deviance emerge when legitimate
means are limited—this creates a structural
_____________ between means and goals for those
without the means.
Merton identified five types of people
accept both society's goals and the means to attain those goals; Most people are _________________.
accept society's goals, but
do not accept the legitimate means to
reject society's goals, but
still conform to the legitimate means
to obtain them
reject both society's goals
and the means to attain them
Defines those who rebel against an
existing system in order to create a
new system (where alternative goals
and means are instituted).
KNOW GRAPH ON SLIDE 28
Sociologists Richard Cloward and Lloyd
Ohlin developed _______________________________________________________________ to explain why social classes
have distinct styles of crime; a functionalist theory that suggests that
differences in styles of crime are due to
differential access to institutionalized means
Illegitimate opportunity structures
opportunities for crimes such as
robbery, burglary, or drug dealing that
are woven into the texture of life; These structures result when legitimate
For the _______________________________ opportunities exist to
make money through "hustles" such as robbery, drug dealing, and other crimes; The "hustler" is a role model because he or she is one of the few who comes close to the
cultural goals of success.
results from an
illegitimate opportunity structure among
higher classes; Such crimes exist in greater numbers than
commonly perceived, and can be very costly; they can involve physical harm and sometimes
Routine activities theory
Marcus Felson and Lawrence E. Cohen
developed _____________________________________________________________ to
understand the causes of crime; states that ineffective
societal controls against crime will lead
to criminals preying upon attractive
1. Lack of capable guardians
▪ E.g. police, homeowners, security systems
2. Motivated offenders
▪ E.g. teenage boys, the unemployed, drug addicts
3. Suitable targets
▪ Unlocked homes, expensive material possessions, easily
According to routine activities theory, crime and
victimization involves the interaction of three
emphasizes that resources are not equally (or fairly)
distributed in modern societies; Deviance and criminal behavior is thus
largely a result of the fact that the lower
class does not have the same access to
resources as does the upper class.
1. Why norms of some groups are transformed
into laws thereby creating criminals out of
2. Why certain laws are enforced but not others,
thereby making criminals out of those who
violate such laws but not others.
3. Why laws are enforced against certain social
groups, thus creating criminals out of certain
rule violators but not others.
Conflict theory addresses the following:
Those who hold power in society tend to define
its ___________; these ________ often are easier to
adhere to for those in the upper echelon of
"Crime" is thus defined by the upper class to
suppress the lower class, therefore those who are
"societal deviants" are often from the ___________________
theories of deviance are based
on the rational-choice ideology that
people conform to rather than deviate
from norms because of the costs involved
with being a deviant.
1. One's level of social integration to others.
2. The degree of time and emotional energy
invested in non-deviant activities.
3. The degree of belief one has in society's
Utilitarian theories believe deviance is
a function of:
Morality or altruism
A weakness of utilitarian theory is that
it may not account for ______________ or
______________; _________________, _________________, and self-sacrifice all
help maintain normative behavior in
society; Therefore, the utilitarian cost/benefit
analysis may be overly simplistic.
__________________________________________ theories of
deviance addresses the effects of
positive or negative attributions
placed on acts, individuals, or groups; Acts are neither inherently good or bad;
normality and deviance are socially
a symbolic interactionist
theory that focuses on the idea that
deviance and conformity result not so
much from what people do, but from how
others respond to those actions.
Societal reactions to negative behavior can
lead one to adopt the values of deviant
subcultures that the labeling process itself
helps to create; Once labeled negatively by others, an
internalized label can lead to negative ______________________________________________________________
1. Denial of responsibility (I didn't do it.)
2. Denial of injury (who really got hurt?)
3. Denial of a victim (she deserved it!)
4. Condemnation of the condemners (who
are you to judge me?)
5. Appeal to higher loyalty (I had to help my friends.)
Gresham Sykes and David Matza cite five "techniques of neutralization" that deviants employ to resist society's
Differential Association Theory
Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey's
______________________________________________________(1966) claims that
deviance is a group phenomenon: "the result of
an excess of definitions favorable to violation of
the law."; Deviance is learned with others in small, intimate
groups; Learning deviance includes learning techniques for
committing crimes, and learning motives, drives,
rationalizations, and attitudes; Deviant behavior is not biological or accidental;
people who deviate associate with and learn from
others who condone deviant activities.
1. Frequency of communication
2. Duration of communication
4. Intensity of differential association
The learning process of differential association
is a function of:
Walter Reckless' __________________________________
believes that everyone is propelled
towards deviance, but two systems of
control work against motivations to
Inner and outer controls
What are the two systems of
control that work against motivations to
are our capacity to withstand
temptations toward deviance due to an
internalized morality, integrity, fear of
punishment, and desire to be good.
are external social forces
that influence us not to deviate (e.g.
groups, family, friends, the police).
Social control theory
Travis Hirschi's _____________________________________ seeks not to discover why
people commit deviant acts, but
rather why DON'T people commit
deviant acts?; assumes that deviance is enticing for
Actors who do not deviate do so
because of __________________ with
conventional society; If ___________________ are weak, people will be
more likely to deviate from norms; Deviance and delinquency is thus a
function of a lack of ties to conventional
Social control theory has four elements:
The more ___________________ one is to normal conventional
members of society (e.g. parents, teachers, clergy)
the less likely one is to deviate.
The more ___________________ one is to conventional social
institutions (e.g. school, family, church) the less
likely one will deviate.
The more _________________ one is in culturally sanctioned
activities (e.g. Little League, Boy/Girl Scouts) the
less likely one will deviate.
The more deeply one ______________ in societal norms,
the less likely one will deviate.
KNOW CHARTS ON SLIDES 54,55,56
Since 1975 the number of prisoners in the
U.S. has increased by over ________%.
By 2013, over ___million people were under
supervision of the criminal justice system.
With more than __ million imprisoned, it is the
first time in U.S. history that more than 1 in 100
are behind bars.
in America are similar to
other industrialized countries;
incarceration rates are very different.
The United States _____________________ a far
greater percentage of its citizens than any
KNOW GRAPHS ON SLIDES 59,60, 61
_____________ are the fastest growing
segment of the prison population.
Between 1980 and 2014, the number of
women behind bars increased by ____%.
Women of color
are incarcerated at disproportionately
high rates compared to others.
Crime rates have largely remained the same, or
even _____________________ over the past few decades.
Roughly 12% of the rise in incarcerations since 1980
is a result of a rise in crime rates. The remaining 88% of prison sentences are results
of changes in ____________________________________.
True or false?
Many crimes have mandatory minimum
Many states have implemented "threestrikes
laws" which carry ____________________
sentences for multiple felony offenses.
_____________ has been severely limited (or
Many more arrests have been ________
A key reason for increased incarceration
rates stems from America's __________________________________ on crime as a social problem.