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95 terms

Cognition

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memory
human capacity to register, retain and remember information
information processing model
a model containing encoding, storage and retrieval
encoding
the process of putting informaton into the memory system
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
Levels of Processing Theory
Theory that recall of information is based on how deeply it is processed
shallow processing
strucural encoding that emphasizes the superficial characteristics of a stimulus, such as the font in which a word is printed
deep processing
semantic encoding, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus
self-refrence effect
processing information deemed imporant or relevant more deeply for easier recall
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
a memory system that contains: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory
sensory memory
memoral system that holds external events from the senses for up to a few seconds
visual encoding
the encoding of picture images
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
selective attention
the focusing of awareness on stimuli in sensory memory that facilitates its encoding in STM
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
parallel processing
processing several streams of information simultaneously
effortful processing
encoding that requires our attention and concious effort
features extraction
pattern recognition, finding a match for new information by searching through the LTM
short-term memory
working memory, 20 second length, capacity of 7 plus or minus 2 items
rehearsal
conscious repitition of information to either maintain information in STM or encode it for storage
maintence rehearsal
repition that keeps information in STM about 20 seconds
elaborative rehearsal
repition that creates associations between the new memory and existing memories stored in LTM
chunking
grouping information into meaningful units increasing the capacity of STM
mnemonic devices
memory tricks or strategies to make information easier to remember
method of loci
usues visualization with familar objects on a path to recall information on a list
peg word system
uses association of terms to be remembered with a memorized scheme
Baddeley's working memory model
a more complex memory model, includes a phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, and the ventral executive
long term memory
relatively permanent storage with unlimited capacity, LTM is subdivided in explicit (declarative) memory and implicit memory
explicit memory
declarative memory of facts and experiences that one conciously knows and can verbalize
semantic memory
memory of general knowlege and objective facts
episodic memory
memory of personally experienced events
implicit memory
retention without conscious recollection of learning the skills and disposition
procedural memory
memories of perceptual, motor and cognitive skills
hierarchies
systems in which concepts are arranges from more genral to specific classes
concepts
mental representation of related things
prototypes
the most typical examples of a concept
semantic networks
more irregular and distorted system than strict hierarchies with multiple links from one concept to others
schemas
frameworks of basic ideals and preconceptions about people, objects and events based on past experience
script
a schema for an event
flashbulb memory
vivid memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
connectionism
theory that memory is stored through the brain in connections between neurons, many of which can work together to process a single memory
artifical intelligence
a field of study in which computer programs are designed to simulate human cognitive abilites
neural network
clusters of neurons that are interconnected process information simultaneously, automatically, and without our awareness
Long-term potentiation
enhanced response at synapes within the hippocampus
thalamus
involved in encoding sensory memory into the STM
hippocampus
involved in putting infromation from STM to LTM
amygdala
involved in the storage of emotional memories
cerebellum
processes implicit memories and seems to store procedural memory and classically conditioned memories
retrieval
process of getting infromation out of memory storage
retrieval cue
a stimulus that provides a trigger to get an item out of memory
priming
activating specific association in memory either consciously or unconsciously
recognition
identification of something as familiar such as multiple choice and matching question on a test
recall
retrieval of infromation from LTM in the absence of any other information or cues
reconstruction
retrieval that can be distorted by adding, dropping or chining details to complete a picture from incomplete stored information
confabulation
process of combining and substituting memories from events other than the one you are trying to remember
misinformation effect
incorporation of misleading information into memories of a given event
serial position effect
better recall for information that comes at the beginning and end of a list of words
encoding specificity principle
Principle stating that recall is better if the retrieval context is like the encoding context.
context-dependent memory
physical setting in which a person learns information is encoded along with the information and becomes part of the memory trace
mood congruence
tendancy to recall memories that are consistent with one's current mood
state-dependent memory effect
tendency to recall information better when in the same internal state as when the information was encoded
distributed practice
spreading out the memorization of information or the learning of skills over several sessions, typically produces better retrieval than massed practice
massed practice
cramming the memorization of inforamtion or the learning of skills into one session
forgetting
the inability to retrieve previously stored information
interference
learning some items prevents retrieving others, especially when the items are similar
proactive interference
the process by which old memories prevent hte retrieval of newer memories
retroactive interference
when new learning disrupts the recall of previously-learned information
repression
the tendency to forget unpleasant or traumatic memories hidden in the unconscious mind (Freud)
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
often temporary inability to access infromation accompanies by a feeling that the information is in LTM
anterograde amnesia
inability to put new information into explicit memory resulting from damage to the hippocampus, no new semantic memories are formed
retrograde amnesia
memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident
cognition
all the mental activites associated with thinking, knowing and remembering
metacognition
thinking about how you think
trial and error
trying possible solutions and discarding those that fail to solve the problem
algorithm
problem-solving strategy that involves step-by-step procedure that gaurantees a solution to certian types of problems
heuristic
a probelm solving strategy used as a mental shortcut to quickly simplify and solve a probelm, does not garuntee solution
insight learning
the sudden appearance or awareness of a solution to a problem
deductive reasoning
reasoning from genral to specific
inductive reasoning
reasoning from the specific to the general
mental sets
barriers to probelm solving that occur when we apply only methods that have worked in the past rather than trying new or different strategies
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
cognitive illusion
systematic way of thinking that is responsible for an error in judgement
availability heuristic
tendency to estimate the probability of certian events in terms of how readily they come to mind
representativeness heuristic
tendency to judge the likelihood of things acccording to how they relate to to prototype
framing
the way an issue is stated, how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
anchoring effect
tendency to be influenced by a suggested reference point, pulling our response towards that point
belief perseverance
tendency to hold onto a belief after the basis for the belief is discredited
hindsight bias
the dendency to falsely report, after the event, that we correctly predicted the outcome of the event
overconfidence bias
tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
creativity
ability to think about a probelm or idea in a new or unusual ways to come with unconventional solutions
incubation
putting aside a probelm temporarily to look from a different perspective
brainstorming
generating many possible solutions
divergent thinking
thinking tha tproduces many alternatives or ideas
convergent thinking
convential thinking directed towards a single correct solution