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Levels of Processing Theory
Theory that recall of information is based on how deeply it is processed
strucural encoding that emphasizes the superficial characteristics of a stimulus, such as the font in which a word is printed
semantic encoding, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus
processing information deemed imporant or relevant more deeply for easier recall
a memory system that contains: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory
the focusing of awareness on stimuli in sensory memory that facilitates its encoding in STM
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
pattern recognition, finding a match for new information by searching through the LTM
conscious repitition of information to either maintain information in STM or encode it for storage
repition that creates associations between the new memory and existing memories stored in LTM
Baddeley's working memory model
a more complex memory model, includes a phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, and the ventral executive
long term memory
relatively permanent storage with unlimited capacity, LTM is subdivided in explicit (declarative) memory and implicit memory
declarative memory of facts and experiences that one conciously knows and can verbalize
more irregular and distorted system than strict hierarchies with multiple links from one concept to others
frameworks of basic ideals and preconceptions about people, objects and events based on past experience
theory that memory is stored through the brain in connections between neurons, many of which can work together to process a single memory
a field of study in which computer programs are designed to simulate human cognitive abilites
clusters of neurons that are interconnected process information simultaneously, automatically, and without our awareness
processes implicit memories and seems to store procedural memory and classically conditioned memories
identification of something as familiar such as multiple choice and matching question on a test
retrieval that can be distorted by adding, dropping or chining details to complete a picture from incomplete stored information
process of combining and substituting memories from events other than the one you are trying to remember
serial position effect
better recall for information that comes at the beginning and end of a list of words
encoding specificity principle
Principle stating that recall is better if the retrieval context is like the encoding context.
physical setting in which a person learns information is encoded along with the information and becomes part of the memory trace
state-dependent memory effect
tendency to recall information better when in the same internal state as when the information was encoded
spreading out the memorization of information or the learning of skills over several sessions, typically produces better retrieval than massed practice
the tendency to forget unpleasant or traumatic memories hidden in the unconscious mind (Freud)
often temporary inability to access infromation accompanies by a feeling that the information is in LTM
inability to put new information into explicit memory resulting from damage to the hippocampus, no new semantic memories are formed
problem-solving strategy that involves step-by-step procedure that gaurantees a solution to certian types of problems
a probelm solving strategy used as a mental shortcut to quickly simplify and solve a probelm, does not garuntee solution
barriers to probelm solving that occur when we apply only methods that have worked in the past rather than trying new or different strategies
tendency to estimate the probability of certian events in terms of how readily they come to mind
tendency to judge the likelihood of things acccording to how they relate to to prototype
the way an issue is stated, how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
tendency to be influenced by a suggested reference point, pulling our response towards that point
the dendency to falsely report, after the event, that we correctly predicted the outcome of the event
ability to think about a probelm or idea in a new or unusual ways to come with unconventional solutions
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