42 terms

The Constitution (All)

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Popular Sovereignty
Authority of the people
Federalism
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Bill of Rights
In the Constitution as Amendments 1-10. Added AFTER the Constitutional Convention; created to gain support of anti-Federalists; guaranteed rights of individuals
Article
Describe the functions and format of the new goverment
Amendment
A change to the constitution. Typically lays out the rights of the people and limits the government's powers
Republicanism
A form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
Limited Government
A system in which the power of the government is limited, not absolute.
Individual Rights
Basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
Ratify
To approve
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Federalists
Supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government.
Anti-Federalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Anti-Federalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states.
Virginia Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress
Great Compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
Three-Fifths Compromise
Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention stating that each slave was to be counted as three-fifths of a person for purposes of determining population for representation in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Articles of Confederation
First governing document of US - created a WEAK central government; issues with trade - different currencies in each state, tariffs on goods traded between states
Confederation Congress
A single governing body created by the Articles of Confederation
Expressed Powers
Powers specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution. For example, the Constitution gives Congress the power to coin money, impose taxes, and regulate interstate commerce. Expressed powers are also called enumerated powers.
Reserved Powers
Powers not specifically granted to the national government or denied to the states. Reserved powers are held by the states through the Tenth Amendment.
Concurrent Powers
Powers that are given to both federal and state governments. Ex., the power to tax and create courts.
Supremacy Clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Rule of Law
Core value that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Amendment I
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
Amendment 2
The right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated malitia
Amendment 3
The government can not force you to house soldiers.
Amendment 4
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
Amendment 5
Right to a fair trail, can't be tried twice for the same crime, and you don't have to testify against yourself.
Amendment 6
Rights of accused in criminal cases - speedy trial, jury of your peers, right to an attorney
Amendment 7
Right to jury trail in civil suit where the value of controversy exceeds $20.
Amendment 8
No excessive bail or cruel punishment.
Amendment 9
People's rights are not limited to those in the Constitution.
Amendment 10
Any rights not given to federal government are reserved for the states.
Article 1
Article of the Constitution that defines the Legislative Branch, it's powers, members, and workings.
Article 2
Article of the Constitution that defines the Executive Branch, it's powers, duties, and means of removal.
Article 3
Article of the Constitution that sets up the Judicial Branch and defines treason.
Article 4
Article of the Constitution that regulates the states' powers, and their interaction with the National government.
Article 5
Article of the Constitution that sets up the amendment process.
Article 6
Article of the Constitution that sets the status of the Constitution as the supreme law of the land, to which leaders must be loyal.
Article 7
Article of the Constitution that addresses ratification and declares that the constitution should take affect if 9 out of 13 states ratify.