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Terms in this set (66)
Why did the colonies declare their independence from Britain?
They were being treated unfairly by the British. They had no representatives in Parliament and no say over taxes. They were part of Britain but simply existed to benefit Britain in trade through the mercantile system.
a system of trade so Britain can produce their own products, colonies supply raw material in return Britain gives them the goods they produced.
the mindset and system of respect among the British and the classes. The British expected to be treated with respect by the colonies simply because they had higher classes.
parliament believed that the colonies would flourish if not being squeezed by a watchful and suspicious government. so they left the colonies to their own devices and they weren't held accountable to British standards of rule.
war between France, Britain and Spain over colonies across the globe
French and Indian War
also called Seven Years War, a war between French and British and all their settlements, not just America. It came to America when George Washington led a group of men interior towards the border of Virginia and what they saw as unclaimed territory, the French believed that it was their territory. Both sides had allied with Indians, however, Washington lost this encounter. This began a war between British and France in the colonies, which ended salutary neglect because Britain then sent troops over to help. After the war, the British set up the Proclamation Line.
A line of British forts set up along the Virginian border to protect colonists from Indian attacks and also to keep colonies from expanding west.
British perspective of financing the FandI war
The British believed they had fought to protect the colonists from enemies on the western frontier.
were convinced that they had done more than their share to finance the war costs:
two-fifths of the money the colonists spent in recruitment, clothing, and paying the troops came from the mother country.
colonists should be grateful
follow up on a previous molasses tax which the colonies ignored, in the sugar act the crown lowered the tax on sugar which put an end to smugglers, colonists didn't like it because the tax wasn't to regulate trade but to generate revenue. external tax
it was an internal tax that taxed paper used by colonists, paper used for important documents, letters, cards, etc.
"no taxation without representation"
a phrase that reflected the resentment of colonists at being taxed by Parliament in which they had no representatives.
it became an anti-British slogan before the American Revolution; in full, "Taxation without representation is tyranny.".
in response to Britian's taxes, the colonies boycotted British goods and made their own clothes, tea etc.
Boston tea party
Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty boarded three ships in the Boston harbor and threw 342 chests of tea overboard. This resulted in the passage of the punitive Coercive Acts in 1774 and pushed the two sides closer to war. this especially hurt British, because they had already payed for those teas, they lost money on the tea.
Was the term for a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in order to punish the Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party. among other things, the intolerable act closed Boston harbors until they payed for the tea and forced them to house British troops.
the first continental congress
was response to the intolerable acts, and started the official American resistance to the British and would kick off the revolution
What were some of the unintended consequences of the American revolution?
the economic crisis that resulted, not only were they in debt from the war, but they no longer had Britain's trade system, which had been a huge part of their economy. Democracy was also another unintended consequence, although they wanted a more democratic nation, it went to an extreme, where the power was to much in the people's hands and there was no stable government.
also, with the establishment of the constitution and the mindset of all men being created equal, it led to women pushing for equal rights, and for slaves to have something to fight for.
How did the revolution affect African-americans?
it affected African- Americans because many of them were able to earn their freedom. while the revolution was happening some slaves took the opportunity to run away as their owners were gone and with the distraction of war. Also, some slaves were able to earn their freedom by fighting on their owner's side. although given freedom, they still weren't considered citizens and were not given equal rights such as voting. a more significant effect it had on slavery, was that in forming the new government and with the constitution that states all men are created equal, it planted the seed and made people question whether slavery was constitutional or not. this was a spark that would later play into
African-amerian slaves freedom and equal rights.
How did the American revolution affect women?
the revolution gave women the opportunity to do more and prove themselves as more than just running homes. men left for war which meant that there was plantations to maintain and other jobs to fill, those who filled these positions were women. Another way women began to have a bigger role in the country was the formation of the Republican
Motherhood which as formed during the revolution. the colonies wanted to raise a generation of good republicans and since mothers were the ones who spent most time with the children, they would need to be able to educate them, so the women would have to be educated in order to do so. Thus, the women were given more significant roles. And although, women were still not able to vote, many women, now educated, had the ear of their husbands, and were able to influence them in political decisions.
How were native Americans affected by the Revolution?
They were affected because after the British lost, they gave guns to the Indians and encouraged them to attack America while weak and a disarray as they tried to set up a new nation. Native American's land was affected. While the British still ruled, they were ok because the colonists weren't allowed to expand, however, now that there was no more British control, America began to expand. Another way the native Americans were affected was that it ended the Iroquois Confederacy. There were no Indian representatives at the treaty that ended the war, so they didn't get a good end of the deal. they received bad treatment n diplomatic arrangements the British gave large NA land to US which the US wanted to expand into, however the Indians weren't ok with that, they still considered it their land.
started before the European Contact it was an alliance between six different Iroquois tribes. The Mohawk chief Joseph Brant convinced 4 tribes to fight with the British.
what kind of government did the articles of confederation create?
they created a confederation.
what is a confederation?
is a government in which the state government not national have dominant power.
why did they create a confederation?
because they feared a s strong central government would lead to tyrannical monarchy like they had just escaped from Britain.
layout of the government created by the articles
only one house legislative to make laws and each state only had on vote each state had one representative in congress no matter state size.
there was no executive branch and no judicial branch.
they had to have 9 out of 13 votes to pass a bill and unanimous votes to amend the articles. under the articles the states, not congress had power to tax.
Congress could raise money, borrow money, sell land and raise an army only with state's consent.
why was all the power in the state's hands a problem?
the states were concerned about preserving their own sovereignty and power. this led to frequent arguments and states would not willingly give money to financially support the government. thus the government could not pay the military or those who had served in revolution; this, paired with the banks printing without hard gold to back it made for a very unstable economy.
what started shay's rebellion?
the economic unrest. the government was trying to tax farmers to help pay for war, they had to pay in hard currency (gold), the farmers couldn't pay this and they became so in debt many farms had to foreclose. Daniel Shay led a rebellion against this by attacking courts where they were trying indebted farmers they took over the courts and burned tax records.
how did shays rebellion lead to the creation of the Constitution?
the militia stopped the rebellion but the government leaders feared that this might spark for more rebellions in other states. it showed that too much democratic liberty among lower classes would threaten private property. and there had to be a system that wouldn't allow for people to be able to rebel any time they didn't like something. this led to the revision of the articles and in turn created the constitution
what kind of government did the constitution create?
they realized they needed a stronger central government, but balanced. the power couldn't be too much in the people's hands but also couldn't be too much government control. they needed something more defined and stable to handle the economy as well. they also wanted it to be more flexible, not having to have unanimous vote.
what issues did the constitution address?
representation of states, slavery and a stronger government. for a stronger government they came up with a division of power where there are three branches, legislative, judicial and executive. and to ensure that one branch didn't hold too much power they came up with checks and balances.for the issues of representation of state they developed the electoral college. another way was through the senate. they set up senators who are elected by the states to represent them in political issues. for slavery, they addressed how to handle fugitive slaves and slave trade. fugitive slaves were to be returned to their owners and were not free if they escaped to another state.slavery also created a problem they addressed and that was for the number of representatives each state would get. the south wanted slaves to be counted into the population while the non-slave states didn't want them to be counted. thus the three fifths compromise came into existence. the 3/5 compromise counted the total number of white people and 3/5s of slaves.
checks and balances
each of the three branches can limit the other's power, each branch checks the power of the other branch. this way all the power is balanced between them. For example; the president in the executive branch can veto a bill, but with enough votes, the legislative branch can override and pass it.
if the revolution is defined as a fundamental change, how revolutionary was the revolution?
it was completely revolutionary. unlike other revolutions that happened in other countries like France, the American revolution wasn't a social revolution, but a complete pull for an independent nation and to separate from Britain. They wanted to form a completely new government, one that was not a monarchy like Britain's but a democracy where the people had a say in what happened in the government. it was fundamental because it changed the fundamental way the government was run. They wrote many documents to set up this government, including; the declaration of independence, the articles of confederation and the constitution.
the declaration of independence
was created in the second continental congress, John Adams was the leader in pushing for independence, they had Thomas Jefferson write the final draft. It declared that they would go to war with Britain to make their thirteen colonies independent and start U.S.A
articles of confederation
set up the first model of government
established America's national government and fundamental laws, and guaranteed certain basic rights for its citizens.
when and where did the fundamental change take place?
in 1775, at the second continental congress. when the colonists met to lay the foundations to officially declare its independence from Britain.
republican vision of Hamilton
wants to be a manufacturing economy
-wants to establish national bank to stabilize currency, no more printing money whenever has to have gold to back it.
-wants to tax whiskey
-wants to start tariffs
strong federal government
-they have good global trade
-they are British
-no land, therefore those people are not independent so they cannot be "virtuous republicans" Hamilton thinks this is a god thing because aristocratic wealthy and talented are the only ones who are virtuous
democratic-republican view of Jefferson
wants an agricultural economy
-there will be more citizens because it will be an agricultural economy and thus more people contributing to society. and they are self-dependent
what other policy differences existed between federalist and democratic-republican
Why were westerners some of the leading supporters of the War of 1812?
the people toward the west wanted the war because they wanted the British to stop supporting the Indians. a shawnee Indian, Tecumseh and his brother had banned together to convince other tribes on the plains to form a confederacy and fight the U.S. the people towards the west were getting nervous because they were increasing and becoming more of a threat, especially with the British as allies.
Tecumseh and Tenskatawa
They were both Shawnee Indians, brothers. Tecumseh was everything a shawnee leader should be; Tenskatawa was opposite. After having a vision, Tenskatawa was convinced that the Indians should abandon all white ways. He traveled around preaching this to tribes and set up Prophet's Town. Tecumseh rises to power after the Battle of Fallen Timber and Pontiac's Rebellion and Little Turtle's War, with his brother convincing many tribes to stay away from white ways, Tecumseh has the perfect opportunity to convince them to band together and start a war.
Alien and Sedition Acts
By John Adams. Deals with immigration, how quickly someone can become a citizen. The sedition part deals with treason. People were criticizing about him, Adams wanted to put an end to it. He thinks that since the president is for the common good it is illegal to criticize him.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Were drafted secretly by Jefferson and Madison, in response to Alien and Sedition acts. gives power to states to nullify laws and interposes laws, which means they acknowledge the laws exist but won't follow them. they're allowed to do these things for the protection of citizens.
Marbury vs. Madison
was the first U.S. Supreme Court case to apply the principle of "judicial review" -- the power of federal courts to void acts of Congress in conflict with the Constitution. Written by Chief Justice John Marshall, this played a key role in making the Supreme Court a separate branch of government along with Congress and the executive.
Jefferson wants to be a nation of farmers, you need more land for that. This also plays into his democratic-republican mindset of making more citizens, he wants to build an 'empire of liberty'. He wants make purchase, but doesn't think he has constitutional right. Purchases anyways. This is a big deal because Britain and France are at war, if he purchases he will be helping the French, doesn't want it to seem like he's taking sides.
a compromise for the election of the President by a vote in Congress and by a popular vote. to protect from mob rule.
followed the repeal of the sugar act. it dealt with the power of parliament in the colonies. stated that Parliament;s power was the same in America as it was in Britain. It stated its authority to pass laws that were binding to American colonies. Parliament could legislate in the colonies in 'all cases whatsoever'
the colonists ignored the declaratory act, they didn't realize its impact until Townshend Duties. The acts are named after Chancellor Charles Townshend, he put a new set of taxes into play. He based them off the colonists dislike of internal taxes and therefore, decided to tax them externally. to ensure they complied, he set up a board in Boston to oversee collection of these duties. He also set up courts to try those who tried to evade the taxes by smuggling
Virtuous citizens making decisions for the common good.
Whiskey tax was protested by the farmers of western Pennsylvania, many of whom distilled whiskey and profited from its sale.
A force of whiskey rebels destroyed the home of a tax inspector.
The rebellion grew and threatened to spread to other states.
Washington knew that the presence of a large and potentially hostile force in Pennsylvania could not be tolerated. If the government were to survive, it would have to show itself capable of keeping control.
Washington himself suited up to show that this would not be tolerated.
Hamilton led the army to stop them.
Era of Good Feeling
1816-1824, its called era of good feeling because everyone in government is in the same mindset of democratic-republican, they adopt some federalist views, because of the Embargo Act and nonINtercourse act which stop trade with Britain, they see the benefit in manufacturing on their own. with adopting federalist views, and the absence of Hamilton, the federalists disappear. and there's an expansion of voting.
starts tariffs. Many southerners thought tariffs harmed their interests because they sold their cotton on the unprotected world market, whereas most northerners sold goods on the protected national market. Southerners also believed tariff revenues funded government projects that benefitted only the North. South Carolina nullifies the tariffs, and refuses to pay. Jackson sends the Navy to make them pay, S. Carolina nullifies the Force Act but pays anyways.
Called bank wars because Jackson destroys the U.S. Bank. Jackson distrusted banks. Biddle the bank owner knew this and tried to apply for charter 4 yrs early during Jackson election year for second term , thinks that he will have more supporters for the bank and Jackson will be distracted. Jackson vetoes the charter, he thinks its for the elite and wealthy not for the people. He decides to make his election about the bank. upon election, he pulls money from the national bank and divides it into state banks. Biddle calls in all the loans so the money comes back, makes an economic mess. this will result to the Panic of 1837 and will eventually close 8 banks across U.s. and shut down U.s. bank.
who were virtuous citizens
Virtuous citizens were considered property owning white men. It had to be property owning men because they were self-dependent and are able to focus on bigger things than their own survival, they were responsible men, because they were able to maintain their own property. And because they own property they care more about what happens because their lives are intwined into decisions being made.
what was the common good
the common good was being able to look past your own interest and welfare and to the good of the nation.
encouraged by Alexander Hamilton and his federalist view of a manufacturing economy, was in order to make a steady source of revenue, imposed on a domestic product (whiskey)
why did Madison fear factions?
James Madison believed the greatest threat to American democracy was factions. he concluded this from studying the demise of past democracies. If a faction gained control of government (mob rule), then democracy would collapse on itself.
How did James Madison argue that the Constitution would control faction?
There are two methods of removing the causes of faction: one, by destroying the liberty; the other, by giving to every citizen the same opinions. Since neither of these can be controlled, Madison concludes that factions can not be stopped, but they can control the effects by forming a republic where laws and ideas filter through a board of chosen representatives.
How did Andrew Jackson change the nature of the presidency?
Jackson changed the nature of presidency in the way that he strongly believed that he represented the people and had the people's welfare in mind, thus he used the veto more than the other presidents up to him combined. Another way is that he openly campaigned for his presidency which wasn't something that happened. also, on many key issues that surfaced during his presidency his decisions were always to benefit the power of presidency. Such as Indian Removal policy, while the Supreme Court decided one way on the issue he chose to ignore. In dealing with S. Carolina's nullification of tariffs, he overrules state's rights by sending the navy and enacting the force act to make them pay. in the Bank War, he displays and enhances presidents' power in the way that he completely destroys the Bank of U.S.
How did the republican vision change between 1800 and 1836 (from Jefferson to Jackson)?
during Jefferson's presidency they were strictly democratic-republican beliefs, however, during The era of good feeing, they began to accept some federalist ideologies as well. it continued to change immensely with the development of the Jacksonian Democracy and the Democratic party. this goes against republic vision because they tried to stay away from factions and parties and Jackson's presidency resulted in a clear cut party. some of the differences were that all white men were allowed to vote now. and Jackson believed that voting in ones own self-interest was better than for the common good.
Jefferson wanted to absorb Indians into our culture, let become agriculturists, they had land already so it would help with his agricultural economy. Jackson was a known Indian Fighter, when he came to presidency he wanted to completely remove Indians. called for Indian Removal Act; says U.S. should remove all Indians by force if necessary, anyone from east of the Mississippi. this leads to the trail of tears, Jackson decided to ignore Supreme Court's rule and overrules them signing the act to remove Indians.
colonists view on F and I war
The colonists, on the other hand, believed that they had performed splendidly in the war and that their reward would be opening the western territories to settlement. Some colonial leaders argued that their colony was simply too poor to contribute to the war effort. other colonies such as quaker colonies didn't think they should contribute because they were against war, new jersey, Rhode Island and colonies around there didn't think war affected them so they didn't have to pay. all the states waited to see what the others would pay to finance before they did.
what were the three primary Townshend Acts
The Restraining Act,which was aimed at New York for its refusal to provide for British troops. It nullified all legislation of the New York colonial assembly. The second act tightened British control of colonial trade. The most onerous was the third act, which placed duties on colonial imports of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.
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