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dumbbell tenement

high rise urban building that provided barrackslike housing for urban slum dwellers

New Immigrants

term for most post-1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southern and eastern Europe

Birds of Passage

immigrants who came to America to earn money for a time and then returned to their native land

social gospel

the religious doctrines preached by those who believed that the churches should directly address economic and social problems

Hull House

settlement house in the Chicago slums that became a model for women's involvement in urban social reform

social worker

profession established by jane mcaddams and others that opened new doors for women while engaging in urban problems

american protection agency

nativist organization that attacked new immigrants and roman catholics in the 1880s and 1890s

roman catholics

the church that became the largest American religious group, mainly as a result of new immigration

Tuskegee Institute

black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide training in agriculture and crafts


organization founded by W. E. B. Du Bois and others to advance black social and economic equality

Progress and Poverty

Henry George's best selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition of a "single tax" on land

Comstock Law

federal law promoted by a self appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents

Women and Economics

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's book urging women to enter the work force and advocating cooperative kitchens and child care centers

National American Women's Suffrage Association

organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women

Women's Christian temperance union

women's organization founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption

Louis Sullivan

chicago based architect whose high rise innovation allowed more people to crowd into limited urban space

Dwight L. Moody

popular evangelical preacher who brought the tradition of old time revivalism to the industrial city

Jane Addams

leading social reformer who lived with the poor in the slums and pioneered new forms of activism for women

Walter Rauschenbusch

leading protestant adovocate of the "social gospel" who tried to make Christianity relevant to urban and industrial problems

Mary Baker Eddy

author and founder of a popular new religion based on the principles of spiritual healing

Booker T. Washington

former slave who promoted industrial education and economic opportunity but not social equality for blacks

W. E. B. Du Bois

harvard educated scholar and advocate of full black social and economic equality through the leadership of a talented tenth

William James

harvard scholar who made original contributions to modern psychology and philosophy

Henry George

controversial reformer whose book Progress and Poverty advocated solving problems of economic inequality by a tax on land

Emily Dickinson

gifted but isolated New England poet, the bulk of whose works were not published until after her death

Mark Twain

midwestern born writer and lecturer who created a new style of American literature based on social realism and humor

Victoria Woodhull

radical feminist propagandist whose eloquent attacks on conventional social morality shocked many Americans in the 1870's

Anthony Comstock

vigorous nineteenth century crusader for sexual purity who used federal law to enforce his moral views

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

brilliant feminist writer who advocated cooperative cooking and child care arrangements to promote women's economic independence and equality

Henry Adams

well connected and socially prominent historian who feared modern trends and sought relief in the beauty and culture of the past

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