Ancient Rome without pictures
Terms in this set (53)
Indo-Europeans who settled in central Italy c. 1000 BCE and included the Romans
Region in central Italy along the western coast
Group of people who arrived in Italy c. 800 BCE, of unknown origins who settled along the north-western coast of Italy. Around 600 BCE, they conquered most of Italy, including the Romans.
Region along the north-western coast of Italy and home of the Etruscans
What the Etruscans taught or gave the Romans (There are 15 listed - know at least 10 of them)
togas, organization of the army, chariot racing, gladiatorial fights, arches, sewage system, Forum, modified Greek alphabet, triumphs, fasces, triumphs, soothsayers, anthropomorphic deities, temple on Capitoline Hill, ritual for founding cities
Colonists who settled in southern Italy and Sicily c. 750 BCE
Region in southern Italy and Sicily that was the home to Greek colonists (more Greeks lived here in ancient times than in Greece) (Shown in yellow on this map)
The river on which Rome was founded and which still runs through Rome today
Romulus and Remus
The legendary twins, who were left to die along the banks of the Tiber River, then were saved and cared for by a wolf. As adults they wanted to found a city, but fought over who would rule and name it and one of them killed the other.
Legendary Trojan ancestor of the Romans who, the Romans believed, escaped after the Trojan War and had a series of adventures ended up in Latium where he married the daughter of the king of the Latins.
The epic story telling of the adventures of Aeneas
The cruel Etruscan ruling family that the Romans overthrew to set up a republic
republic (or a representative democracy)
A form of government in which the leaders are elected into office by the citizens
Roman military formation made up of about 6000 soldiers
a professional heavy infantryman of the Roman army
This tall pole topped with a symbol helped keep units together because the soldiers could see it above the action.
A system by which Romans gave full citizenship to some of the Italian people that they conquered, and they gave others partial citizenship (Full citizens could vote and serve in the government.)
Roman aristocrats (believed to be descendants of the founding families of Rome).
Before the common people went on strike, only these aristocrats had political power.
Roman common people; achieved political power by going on strike four times
The governing assembly of Rome, which was originally made up of around 300 patricians, but after the common people went on strike, some plebeians were admitted.
Plebeian Council (Council of the Plebs)
The plebeian governing body of Rome. After going on strike, this group got the right to elect tribunes who had veto power over laws passed by the Senate.
The representatives of the plebeians, who presided over the Plebeian Council. They had veto power over all laws.
The leaders of Rome and commanders-in-chief of the armies of Rome
There were always 2; each had veto power over the other.
They were elected by the people of Rome.
They served a single one-year term.
The power to reject a law.
The tribunes received this power in the first strike.
Each consul had this power over the decisions of the other.
This official was chosen to take over in the case of an emergency. This official had absolute power for 6 months or until the emergency was over. After the emergency, this official was expected to step down.
An early Roman dictator who left his farm to lead the Romans against a powerful enemy. Once he was victorious, he returned to Rome and gave up his power, just as a dictator is supposed to do.
The code of laws that was engraved on bronze tablets and posted in the Forum.
Rome's central marketplace
rule of law
The idea that laws should apply to everyone equally and that all people should be treated the same way by the legal system.
Senatus Populusque Romanus
The "Senate and People of Rome"
This name referred to the sharing of power between the Senate and the people of Rome after the four strikes. Although the people lost much of their political power after the Punic War, the Romans still referred to their system as SPQR even during the Roman Empire.
A city in North Africa founded c. 800 BCE by the Phoenicians that ruled a great trading empire.
North Africa, southern Spain, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia
Lands ruled by Carthage before the Punic Wars
First Punic War
The first conflict between the Romans and the Carthaginians. ("The elephant fighting the whale.") (Know more details.)
A bridge that could be dropped from one ship onto another so their soldiers could cross over—making a sea battle into a land battle
Give Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia to Rome; and pay a large fine
Terms of the peace treaty at the end of the First Punic War (What Carthage had to agree to in order to end the war)
Carthage was required to ...
Second Punic War
The second conflict between the Romans and the Carthaginians in which Hannibal invaded Italy. (Know more details.)
The Carthaginian general who invaded Italy, and spent 15 years in Italy attacking the Roman countryside. He never lost a battle on Italian soil.
Battle of Cannae
Hannibal's decisive victory over the Romans in the Second Punic War, in which the somewhere between 50,000 and 80,000 Roman soldiers were killed.
Scipio (Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus - He received the title "Africanus" for defeating Hannibal in Africa)
The Roman general who finally defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama.
Give Spain to Rome, give up its navy, and pay a large fine
Terms of the peace treaty at the end of the Second Punic War (What Carthage had to agree to in order to end the war)
Carthage was required to ...
Battle of Zama
Battle in North Africa near Carthage where Scipio finally beat Hannibal
"Third Punic War"
The Romans attacked Carthage and burned the city. The Roman soldiers enslaved 50,000 men, women & children and, according to legend, they spread salt into the soil so no crops would grow.
"bread and circuses"
The practice by Roman politicians of providing free food and entertainment for the people in order to get and keep their support.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
Two brothers who were Roman politicians who wanted to make reforms to fix Rome's problems in the years after the Punic Wars. (See Leaders in the Roman Revolution Chart for more details.)
A Roman military leader who was re-elected consul six times and made major changes to the Roman Army (See Leaders in the Roman Revolution Chart for more details.)
A Roman general who drove his enemies out of Rome and made himself "dictator for life." He weakened the Council of the Plebs and strengthened the Senate. (See Leaders in the Roman Revolution Chart for more details.)
The First Triumvirate
A political alliance among three leading men in Rome: Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar
The wealthiest man in Rome, who was famous in Rome for crushing a slave revolt led by the gladiator Spartacus
He was defeated and killed in his attempt to conquer Parthia
Roman general who was famous in Rome for crushing the Cilician Pirates.
He was a member of the First Triumvirate, but was later defeated in a civil war against Julius Caesar.
Julius Caesar crossed this boundary between Rome and Gaul in violation of the Senate's orders, starting a civil war between his supporters and those of Pompey.
Junior member of the First Triumvirate who conquered Gaul, defeated Pompey in a civil war, and became dictator for life
Brutus and Cassius
The leaders of the Senators who opposed Julius Caesar, and who ultimately assassinated him
Ides of March, 44 BCE
The date of the assassination of Julius Caesar
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