Unit 8: Test Review
Terms in this set (62)
Does denser air have more or less pressure than less dense air?
Denser air has greater air pressure.
Where is the denser air in the atmosphere?
Denser air is at the surface of the Earth.
What is the lowest layer of the atmosphere where weather occurs?
What is air pressure?
The force of air molecules pushing on an area
As elevation ___________, air pressure decreases.
increases (As altitude increases)
What is the source of energy for the atmosphere?
As sunlight comes into the Earth's atmosphere, what three things can happen to it?
It can be reflected back to space (30%), absorbed by the atmosphere (20%) and it can be absorbed by the surface - land or ocean (50%).
What is INSOLATION?
The amount of solar radiation reaching a given place on the Earth.
Which part of the Earth gets the most direct insolation?
The equator has the highest angle of insolation (90 degrees).
Which part of the Earth gets the least direct insolation?
The poles have the lowest angle of insolation (30 degrees)
What determines the amount of solar insolation received?
The latitude on the Earth determines the amount of solar insolation received.
Does the amount of sunlight coming from the sun change?
No, the amount of sunlight does not change. It just feels less hot at the Earth's poles because it is spread out over more of a distance.
Which area on Earth gets the most direct sunlight?
The equator gets the most direct sunlight.
Which area of Earth gets the most indirect sunlight?
The Earth's poles get the most indirect sunlight.
Name two factors that cause the uneven heating of the Earth's surface.
1. The Earth's shape - sunlight gets more spread out as you move away from the equator.
2. The Earth's Tilt - this causes seasonal variations in the amount of incoming solar insolation.
What causes the differences in air pressure on the surface of the Earth?
The uneven heating of the Earth's surface.
Warm air ______, cool air sinks.
As air rises, it cools and _______
Describe the air temperature, spinning, and weather of an area of low pressure.
Air temperature is warm.
It spins counterclockwise
The weather is wet.
What type of air pressure creates clouds, Low or High?
Low Pressure creates clouds.
Describe the air temperature, spinning, and weather of an area of high pressure.
Air temperature is cooler.
It spins clockwise
The weather is clear and dry.
Air moves from _____ pressure to _____ pressure.
Air moves from HIGH pressure to LOW pressure.
What is wind?
Wind is air movement due to changes in air pressure.
What causes the main direction of wind currents?
Convection currents due to the uneven heating of the Earth's surface.
On Earth, ____ air rises at the equator and ____ air sinks at the poles.
On Earth, WARM air rises at the equator and COLD air sinks at the poles.
What is the CORIOLIS EFFECT?
The Coriolis Effect is where winds are deflected or turned on the Earth's surface because the Earth spins on its axis.
Name the wind belt that occurs between 0 and 30 degrees north and south of the equator.
The Trade Winds (Northeast and Southeast)
Name the wind belt that occurs between 30 and 60 degrees north and south of the equator.
Name the wind belt that occurs between 60 and 90 degrees north and south of the equator.
The Polar Easterlies
The area where the air rises at the equator and there are no winds is called the ____.
The area where the air sinks at 30 degrees latitude and there are no winds is called the ____.
What is the jet stream?
A wind that flows at great speeds in the stratosphere.
What is an AIR MASS?
A large volume of air with similar temperatures and dew points throughout.
There are two ways that air masses are described. What are they?
They are described by temperature and moisture.
What are the two ways words used to describe the moisture of an air mass?
Continental (dry) and Maritime (moist)
What are the three ways words used to describe the temperature of an air mass?
Tropical (warm), Polar (cold), and Arctic (very cold)
How would you name an air mass that is dry and warm?
Continental Tropical, cT
How would you name an air mass that is cold and wet?
Maritime Polar, mP
What do we call the boundary where air masses collide?
What is a COLD front?
Forms where cold air moves towards warm air. Creates rain storms.
What is a WARM front?
Forms where warm air moves towards cold air.
How is a cold front designated on a weather map?
A line with blue triangles attached to it showing the direction the front is traveling.
How is a warm front designated on a weather map?
A line with red half circles attached to it showing the direction the front is traveling.
In the summer, air over the ____ is warmer than the air over the ____ during the day.
In the summer, air over the LAND is warmer than air over the WATER during the day.
In the summer, ____ pressure forms over the land during the day.
In the summer, LOW pressure forms over the land during the day.
What kind of breeze is formed during the day at the beach.
A SEA BREEZE is formed because air is pulled from the high pressure over the water to the low pressure over the land.
Ocean currents help regulate Earth's climate by storing and transporting ____.
Ocean currents help regulate Earth's climate by storing and transporting HEAT.
Ocean currents are controlled by what three factors.
1. Air currents - prevailing winds
2. Earth's rotation - Coriolis
3. Location of continents - land masses act as barriers
What is an ISOBAR?
A line drawn on a weather map or chart linking all points of equal or constant pressure.
Air moves clockwise and out from ____ pressure.
Air moves clockwise and out from HIGH pressure.
Air moved counterclockwise and into ____ pressure.
Air moved counterclockwise and into LOW pressure.
If the isobars are close together on the weather map, the area is experiencing ____ winds.
If the isobars are close together on the weather map, the area is experiencing STRONG winds.
If the isobars are not very close together on the weather map, the area is experiencing ____ winds.
If the isobars are not very close together on the weather map, the area is experiencing WEAKER or CALMER winds.
How can you determine how winds are flowing in an area on a weather map?
You can determine how winds a flowing in an area by looking at the high and low pressure areas.
What is a station model?
A station model is a cluster of symbols that show weather conditions.
What information can a station model tell you?
The CURRENT conditions for an area: temperature, dew point, atmospheric pressure, sky conditions, wind direction, and wind speed.
Draw a station model for this weather:
temperature: 28 degrees Fahrenheit
dew point: 27 degrees Fahrenheit
air pressure: 1019.6 mb
wind direction: southwest
wind speed: 15 knots
sky condition: mostly cloudy
What is orographic lift (rainshadow effect)?
Orographic lift is when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.
As the air mass gains altitude, it ________ down adiabatically.
As the air mass gains altitude, it COOLS down adiabatically.
As the air mass cools down adiabatically this can raise the relative humidity to ____ and create ______.
As the air mass cools down adiabatically this can raise the relative humidity to 100% and create CLOUDS.
What happens on the WINDWARD side of a mountain?
Air rises, cools, and forms clouds
What happens on the LEEWARD side of a mountain?
Air sinks, warms, and clears.