Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (61)
Able to cause disease
An infectious agent; an organism (ex. a microorganism) which causes disease.
The study of disease
A change from the normal, healthy state; an abnormal state of body structure and/or function.
Presence and growth of pathogenic microorganisms on or in the body or presence and growth of normal flora in a body location where the organism is not typically found.
Disease caused by microorganism.
Does infection ALWAYS result in disease?
Not always, depending on the balance between the organism's ability to cause damage and the infected individual's ability to fight off the organism.
• If the host's resistance is strong, the pathogen may co-exist with the host without causing
harm. (If the host's resistance is low or drops, disease is likely to occur.)
Objective (visible or measurable) changes in body structure or function due to a disease.changes in body structure or function due to a disease
Subjective changes in the infected individual's body structure or function due to a disease. Symptoms cannot be seen or measured by others
A specific group of signs and symptoms that typically occur together in individuals suffering from a particular disease.
Communicable Infectious Disease
A disease capable of spreading (either directly or indirectly) from an infected individual to another individual (such as person to person)
Noncommunicable Infectious Disease
A disease not acquired from another individual. [Instead, the disease is caused by the individual's own normal flora (acting as opportunists) or by organisms or toxins acquired from a nonliving external source.]
Word used to describe communicable diseases which are easily spread from one individual to another
The number of individuals in a population developing a disease in a particular time period (ex. the number of individuals who got the flu during the first week of January). This value tells the number of NEW cases of the disease and helps indicate how much and how quickly the disease is spreading.
The total number of individuals in a population with a particular disease at a given time (ex. the total number of individuals with the flu on January 1st). This number includes BOTH the new cases (incidence) and the pre-existing cases and helps indicate how widespread the disease is.
The number of individuals in a population developing a disease in a particular time period. [In other words, this is another word for "Incidence."]
The number of individuals in a population who die from the disease during that time period
A disease which only occurs occasionally in a population. [In other words, it doesn't occur all the time, but instead "pops up" every now and then.]
Constantly present in a population, usually in relatively low numbers
The number of new cases (incidence) is increasing very quickly.
A world-wide epidemic (epidemic on two or more continents at the same time.)
A rapidly-developing, short-lasting disease. Often fairly severe.
A slowly developing, typically less severe, and duration between "acute" and "chronic."
A disease which is currently "silent" (not causing signs or symptoms) but which may become active, with noticeable signs and symptoms, later. [During an infection's latency period, the causative pathogen is present in the body but is dormant. A drop in the infected individuals' immune response might allow for reactivation of the pathogen and reappearance of signs and symptoms later on.]
(aka: "Subclinical" or "Inapparent")
An infection that is not causing any noticeable signs or symptoms
Affecting a limited area in the body
Spread throughout the body. In circulation (in the blood, lymph.)
Presence of bacteria in the blood
Bacteria are not only present in the blood, but are actively reproducing as they circulate through the body, resulting in systemic infection. [This is a VERY dangerous situation!! The body's immune response is not effectively controlling the bacteria. Widespread inflammation may develop and may lead to a life-threatening drop in blood pressure with inadequate blood flow to meet the body's needs.]
Presence of toxins in the bood
Presence of viruses in the blood
The first infection an individual develops after being healthy for a while. [Primary infections tend to lower the individual's ability to resist additional invaders.]
A follow-up infection, typically caused by an opportunistic microorganism taking advantage of the fact that an initial primary infection lowered the individual's resistance.
The time b/w exposure to a pathogen and development of the first noticeable adverse changes. [In other words, pathogens are present in the body, but the individual is not yet experiencing any signs or symptoms of illness.]
Development of the first signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms are very obvious and are not yet improving.
Recovery begins and continues until all signs and symptoms are gone
Sources of pathogens; locations where pathogens can grow or survive; locations from which pathogens may be transmitted to new individuals
What can serve as reservoirs?
Humans or animals
People who harbor pathogens which may be transmitted to others
Some HR serve as "carriers" (inividuals who harbor pathogens without showing any signs or symptoms of illness.)
HR: Incubatory Carriers
Individuals in the incubation period of an infection who don't yet know that they are infected but could already be acting as a source of the pathogen for transmission to others
HR: Convalescent Carriers
Individuals in the convalescent period who are currently recovering from an infection but who could still serve as a source of pathogen transmission.
HR: Chronic Carriers
Individuals who have completely recovered from an infection but still harbor pathogens and could, therefore, serve indefinitely as a pathogen transmission source
HR: Asymptomatic Carriers
Individuals who harbor and could transmit pathogens but who never experienced any noticeable signs or symptoms of disease
Animals harboring pathogens which may be transmitted to other animals or to humans
Diseases which typically affect animals but may also affect humans
Can you think of any examples of zoonoses?
Nonliving things from which pathogens may be acquired
(ex. contaminated air, food, soil, water, etc.)
3 Types: (DID)
Indirect (via "fomites")
Pathogens are spread by physical contact between an infected individual and an uninfected individuals
CT: Indirect (via "formites")
Pathogens are picked up off contaminated inanimate objects known as "formites"
Pathogens are spread via large, moist, heavy mucus droplets expelled from an infected individual and traveling less than one meter (about 3 feet) through the air before landing on an uninfected individual's eye or entering the individual's nose or mouth.
Vehicle Transmission is a
very efficient way to spread pathogens. One infected individual could infect many, many others in a short time by contaminating air, food, water, etc., that others are exposed to.
Types of Vehicle Transmission:
Blood, Body Fluids, IV Solution, other medications
Pathogens travel farther through the air than one meter (about 3 feet) in the form of small, lightweight particles. Contaminated respiratory mucus droplets which have evaporated to small sizes or contaminated dust, mist, or fungal spores may be involved.
May occur how?
Involves arthropods (ex. insects, mites, ticks.)
Vector transmission may occur mechanically or biologically.
Arthropods which passively transmit pathogens on their external body surfaces
Arthropods which transmit pathogens by picking up the pathogen while biting an infected individual and then delivering large numbers of the pathogen to an uninfected individual following active reproduction of the pathogen inside the arthropod's body.
Ex. Transmission of malaria by infected mosquitoes
The study of disease transmission and occurence
Epidemiology includes studying how the
disease is spread as well as when and where it ocurs in the US or the world.
Public Health Agencies:
Sets with similar terms
Unit 2: Disease Terminology
Ch. 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology
Microbiology Chapter 14
Microbiology (KBCC BIO 51) - Disease and Epidemiol…
Other sets by this creator
Micro Bio Final
Micro Biology (Chem Review)
Lab Ch. 10
SPCH Ch. 2