Terms in this set (42)
All traits of parents are blended in their offspring. Males and females produce a liquid for reproduction and so it was reasoned that liquids would blend to form an intermediate mixture in the offspring
Blending Model of Inheritance
the two problems with blending inheritance model
-All individuals would eventually look alike.
-Some traits would seem to skip a generation
Austrian Monk, published results in 1865, trained as a physicist so had a quantitative background. Began breeding peas to study patterns of Inheritance. FATHER of modern genetics
Mendel's idea. Parents pass discrete particles (alleles) to their offspring that do not physically blend with other particles
Particulate model of Inheritance
2 of each chromosome / gene
A pair of the same chromosomes, one copy from each parent
One of each chromosome / gene. Half of what you need
Name of haploids, egg and sperm
Why are gametes haploid?
If not, number of chromosome number would double each generation
Sequence of DNA that codes for a specific protein
Different forms of the same gene
Outward physical appearance of an organism. Tall, short, red, pink, fast, slow
2 letter combination of alleles
There are two alleles in diploid cells.
2 copies of same alleles. Can be dominant or recessive (LL or ll)
2 different alleles (Aa or Bb)
Alleles can affect each other
One allele hides the phenotype of another
Phenotype of heterozygote is intermediate between phenotype of two homozygous genotypes
(ex red and white make pink flowers)
Phenotype of heterozygote simultaneously shows both phenotypes. (you can have AA and be A blood type, you can have BB and be B blood type or you can have AB genotype and be AB blood type which is both fully A and B, not intermediate between AA and BB
Two or more alleles for a gene. Ex. The ABO blood group
One gene affects the phenotypic expression of another gene
One gene with multiple effects on the phenotype. Cystic Fibrosis because the mutated gene affects the airways, pancreas, sweat glands, and reproductive ducts, etc.
One phenotypic trait is controlled by many genes.
How can you tell if a trait is polygenic?
The phenotypes form a Normal Distribution (bell-shaped curve)
Sexually reproducing, diploid individuals have two copies (alleles) for each gene and these alleles separate each other such that each egg or sperm gets only one allele
Principle of segregated alleles
Alleles of one gene assort independently of the alleles at another gene.
Principle of independent assortment
Chromosomes not involved in sex determination
Chromosomes that are involved in sex determination
Sex linked traits
Genes found on sex chromosomes. Show sex specific patterns of Inheritance
Why are sex linked traits important?
Phenotypes more common in males than females, females can be carriers
Genetic mechanisms that equilize the expression of x-linked genes in males and females
Why do genetic mechanisms equalize the expression of X-linked genes?
different number of x chromosomes in males and females
One female x chromosome shuts off, leaving one working copy, like males
X- chromosome inactivation
How do female 'Calico' and 'Tortoiseshell' cats get their mosaic fur colors?
Fur color is x linked. Different x alleles make black or orange colors. Different cells shut off different x chromosomes
The ability of an organism with a given genotype to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment.
Three examples of Phenotypic Plasticity
Musculature, height, skin color.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Core Topic 3 Genetics | IB Biology Guide
Patterns of Inheritance
Bio 1102 Patterns of Inheritance (Exam 3)
bio lecture 17 exam 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
19 Insects of Concern Review -- Note: all lectures after this wont have regular team presentations, we start at 330 in laurel with guest lectures. ALSO 25% of final will be from these lectures
20 Diseases of Concern for Cannabis
21 Diagnosing, Cleanliness and Scientific Studies Review
18 Non Disease Challenges Facing Cannabis Growers Review
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BIOL 1102 Lecture 16: DNA/Cell Cycle
BIOL 1102 Lecture 17: Reproduction I
BIOL 1102 Lecture 18: Reproduction/Development and Aging
BIOL 1102 Lecture 19: Cell Cycle Regulation/Cancer