Chapter 12 Nervous System Review
Review of key terms from chapter 12.
Terms in this set (53)
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
specialized group of nerve cells that controls & coordinates activities of the nervous system
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
subdivision of the nervous system that brings information to the cns
serves the internal organs of the body
message that travels from the dendrites of a neuron to the axon
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
the branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body
large nucleated cells that form myelin around the axons of neurons
node of ranvier
small gap between myelinated segments where axonal membrane is exposed; increase speed of impulses
the space between two neurons through which neurotransmiters travel
recieves information about changes in the enviroment (stimuli)
muscles or glands that respond to impulses
something that causes a response
contains major concentration of the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the neuron
an electrically-insulating phospholipid (fat) layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons
A relatively simple, involuntary response to a stimulus.
the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when it is stimulated
the time after a neuron fires during which a stimulus will not evoke a response
transmission of an impulse by jumping
a chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential(impulse)
part of central nervous system, links brain to rest of body
responsible for balance and coordination, routine movement
the largest part of the brain, controls thinking, reasoning, and memory
connects the hemispheres; found deep inside cerebrum; allows hemispheres to share information
relay link between brain and spinal cord
Regulates ♥ heart rhythm, blood flow, breathing rate,etc.
natural neurotransmitters linked to pain control
Tough, white outer layer of the eye
middle layer of the eye; contains blood vessels
The light sensitive layer of the eye which is composed of receptors (rods and cones).
anterior cavity of the eye filled with clear, watery fluid
the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball
a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects
condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects
rod-shaped receptor in the retina of the eye that is sensitive to dim light but not color
Receptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to bright light and produce color vision.
visible part of the outer ear. It collects sound and directs it into the auditory canal
the membrane that seperates the outer ear from the middle ear and that vibrates when sound waves strike it (tympanic membrane)
the bone attached to the eardrum
the bone between the hammer and the stirrup
a tiny U shaped bone that passes vibrations from the anvil to the cochlea
membrane that covers opening between middle ear and inner ear
a coiled tube that is found in the inner ear and that is essential to hearing
3 loops of fluid filled tubes that that are attached to to the cochlea; maintains equilibrium
sensitive nerve cells in nasal passages.
autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary action and responses.
tube connecting ear to throat; helps to equalize pressure
a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis
a disease that results in the progressive loss of an individual's memory and mental capacity.
"Lou Gherig's Disease" - progressive neurological disease in which the motor neurons degenerate to the point of total loss of motor function. The intelligence, memory, and personality is unaffected.
disorder in which myelin is destroyed causing loss of motor activity