64 terms

Science March 2017 Cell Processes and Energy

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Photosynthesis
The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.
The energy of sunlight that is captured during photosynthesis
Nearly all living things obtain energy either directly or indirectly from...
Light, putting together
What two words does photosynthesis come from?
Other organisms
Some heterotrophs, such as fungi, absorb their food from...
Carbon dioxide and water into sugars and oxygen
During photosynthesis, plants and some other organisms absorb energy from the sun and use the energy to convert what and what into what and what?
A
Which one comes second in photosynthesis?
A-Plants produce sugars. B-Plants capture the sun's energy.
Chlorophyll
The main pigment for photosynthesis in chloroplasts.
A form that is used in the second stage of photosynthesis
Chlorophyll captures light energy and converts it to what?
Hydrogen and oxygen
In stage one of photosynthesis, water in the chloroplasts is split into what?
Oxygen
What is the waste product of stage one of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide, chloroplasts
___ ___ enters the plant through small openings on the undersides of the leaves and moves into the _____.
Sugars
Powered by the energy captured in stage one of photosynthesis, hydrogen and carbon dioxide undergo a series of reactions that result in ___.
Glucose
What is an important sugar produced in stage two?
Oxygen
What is the gas produced by photosynthesis?
Living things through the process of photosynthesis
Almost all the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is produced by...
Is not
Energy is/is not a raw material.
Food, energy, making other compounds, and storage
What do plant cells use sugars produced by photosynthesis for?
Glucose
What is the most common sugar in foods?
C6H12O6
What is the chemical formula of glucose?
Light energy+6 CO2+6 H2O=C6H12O6+6 O2
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
Cellular respiration
The process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.
Glucose, oxygen, energy
During cellular respiration, cells break down ___ and other molecules from food in the presence of ___, releasing ___.
Store it
When you eat a meal, what do you with the glucose?
Breathing brings oxygen into your lungs, which is then carried to cells for cellular respiration.
How are breathing and cellular respiration related to each other? Please answer in this form: Breathing brings ___ into __ __, which is then carried to __ for...
Breathing also removes the waste products of cellular respiration from your body.
How are breathing and cellular respiration related to each other? Please answer in this form: Breathing also removes _ __ ____ _ ____ ____ from your body.
Two
How many stages are there in cellular respiration?
Cytoplasm
Where does the first stage of cellular respiration take place?
Glucose, smaller molecules
In stage one of cellular respiration, molecules of what are broken down into what?
Mitochondria
Where does the second stage of cellular respiration take place?
They are broken down even more.
What happens to the small molecules from stage one of cellular respiration in stage two of cellular respiration?
Oxygen, a lot
Stage two of cellular respiration requires what and produces how much energy?
C6H12O6+6 O2=6 CO2+6 H2O+energy
What is the cellular respiration equation?
In the air or water surrounding the organism.
Where is the oxygen needed in cellular respiration. found?
Some can
Can organisms live in the absence of oxygen?
Fermentation
An energy-releasing process that doesn't require oxygen.
Release energy from food, no
During fermentation, what do cells do? Do they use oxygen?
It releases far less energy than cellular respiration.
What is one drawback to fermentation?
Alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a bit of energy
What does alcoholic fermentation produce?
Cell division
Some organisms reproduce only through...
Cell division leads to the growth of new structures
Some organisms can reproduce when...
Specialized cells from two different parents combine
Most organisms reproduce when...
Grow, repair damaged structures, reproduce
Cell division allows organisms to...
Cell cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
Grows, prepares for division, and divides into two new cells
During the cell cycle, what three things does a cell do?
Daughter cell
A new cell produced during the cell cycle.
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
What are the six phases of e cell cycle?
Interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
What are the three main stages of the cell cycle?
Interphase
The period before cell division.
Grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells
During interphase, what three things does the cell do?
Grows to its full size and produces the organelles it needs
Early during interphase, what does a cell do?
Replication
Process through which the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
Chromosomes
Threadlike structures that DNA and proteins form within the nucleus.
Produces structures that will help it to divide
At the end of interphase, the cell...
Centrioles
Are produced in animal cells, but not plant cells, during interphase.
Mitosis
During this stage of the cell cycle, the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one set of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
Prophase
Chromosomes condense into shapes that can be seen under a microscope.
Chromatid
Rod-like part of a chromosome.
Centromere
Holds the chromatids together until they move apart later in mitosis.
Cytokinesis
Completes the process of cell division.
The cytoplasm divides and the structures are distributed to the two cells
During cytokinesis,...
Telophase
Cytokinesis usually starts at the same time as what?
It squeezes together around the middle of the cell.
During cytokinesis in animal cells, what happens to the cell membrane?
A cell plate forms across the middle of the cell
During cytokinesis in plant cells,...
Two cell walls and two cell membranes
The cell plate eventually forms...