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67 terms

PT Chapter 8-Parenterals

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Large Volume Parenteral(LVP)
Solutions are typically bags or bottles containing larger volumes of intravenous solutions.
LVP Solution Uses
Correction of electrolyte and fluid balance disturbances, nutrition and vehicles for administering other drugs
Small Volume Parenteral(SVP)
? Are contained in ampules, piggyback bags, prefilled syringes and vials
Small Volume Parenteral(SVP)
Contents are withdrawn by syringe and can be added to a LVP solution or injected directly into the patient
Aseptic Techniques
Techniques that maintain sterile conditions and prevent contamination.
Pyrogens
Are chemicals that are produced by microorganisms. They are soluble in water and are not removed by sterilizing or filtering the solution. Can cause pyrectic(fever) reactions.
Osmotic Pressure
The characteristic of a solution determined by the number of dissolved particles in it.
Osmolarity
Unit of measure of osmotic pressure
Isotonic
When a solution has an osmolarity equivalent to that of blood
Hypertonic
Intravenous solutions that have greater osmolarity than blood.
Hypotonic
Intravenous solutions that have lower osmolarity than blood.
Large Volume Parenteral(LVP)
Intravenous solutions packaged in containers holding 100ml or more.
Small Volume Parenteral(SVP)
Packaged products that are either directly administered to a patient or added to another parenteral formulation.
Additive
A drug that is added to a parenteral solution
Admixture
The resulting solution when a drug is added to a parenteral solution.
Ampules
Elongated sealed glass containers with a neck that must be snapped off.
Lyophilized
Freeze-dried
Diluent
A solvent that dissolves a lypholized powder or dilutes a solution.
Infusion
The slow continuous introduction of a solution into the blood stream.
Flow Rate
The rate(in ml/hour or ml/minute) at which the solution is administered to the patient.
Heparin Lock
An injection device used when a primary LVP solution is not available.
Basic parts of a syringe
Barrel, Plunger and Tip
Syringe Tips
Slip-Tip, Luer-Lok, Eccentric, Oral
Hub
The part of the needle that attaches to the syringe
Shaft
The stem of the needle that provides the overall length of the needle
Bevel
An angled surface at the tip of a needle.
Gauge
A measurement; with needles, the higher the ?, the smaller the lumen.
Lumen
The hollow center of a needle.
Coring
When a needle damages the rubber closure of a parental container causing fragments of the closure to fall into the container and contaminate its contents
Depth Filter
A filter that can filter solutions being drawn into or expelled from a syringe, but not both ways in the same procedure.
Membrane Filter
A filter that filters solution as the solution is expelled from the syringe.
Final Filter
A filter that filters solution immediately before it enters a patients vein.
High Efficiency Particulate Air(HEPA)Filter
HEPA Filter
Laminar Flow
Continous movement at a uniform rate in one direction.
Sharps
Needles, jagged glass or metal objects, or any items that might puncture or cut the skin.
Total Parenteral Nutrition(TPN) Solution
Complex Solutions with two base solutions(amino acids and dextrose and additional micronutrients).
Total Nutrient Admixture(TNA) Solution
A TPN Solution that contains intravenous fat emulsion.
Peritoneal Dialysis Solution
A solution placed in and removed from the peritoneal cavity to remove toxic substances.
Irrigation Solution
Large volume splash solutions used during surgical or urologic procedures to bathe and moisten body tissues.
Osmosis
The action in which drug in a higher concentration solution passes through a permeable membrane to a lower concentration solution.
Dialysis
Movement of particles in a solution through permeable membranes.
Molecular Weight
The sum of the atomic weights of a molecule.
Waters of Hydration
Water Molecules that attach to drug molecules.
Anhydrous
Without water molecules
Ion
Molecular particles that carry electric charges
Equivalent Weight
A drug's molecular weight divided by its valence(molecular weight/valence), a common measure of electrolyte concentration.
Valence
The number of positive or negative charges on an ion.
osmule
molecular weight/# of ions
Solid:%
weight(gm)/100ml
Liquid:%
volume(ml)/100ml
Class 100
Sterile products must be prepared in a clean room with a ? environment.
Disposable
? needles should always be used when preparing admixtures as they are presterilized and individually wrapped to maintain sterility.
Molarity
? is an expression of the number of moles of a drug in a volume of solution.
Mole
? is the number of grams numerically equal to the molecular weight of the drug.
particle contamination,precipitation
Visual inspection of parenteral solutions against a brightly lit background can show the presence ? and ?.
7.4
The pH of an intravenous solution should be about ?
Glass
? LVP solution bottles are used when drugs or solutions interact with plastic.
blood
Heparin is used in a heparin lock to keep ? from clotting in the device.
administration set
The basic method to administer a LVP solution is to use an ?
Positive pressure infusion devices(pumps)
generate a pressure that will cause fluid to flow through tubing into the patient's vascular system.
Positive Pressure Pumps
Peristaltic Pumps,Cassette Pumps,Syringe Pumps,Elastomeric Reservoirs
Slip-Tip, Luer-Lok
? tips allow the needle to be held by friction and ? tips have a collar with grooves that lock the needle in place.
50-100ml
Piggybacks usually contain ? of fluid and are infused over a period of 30-60 minutes.
.5%
If 500 mg of a drug are added to a 100mL IV bag, what is the percent strength of teh resulting solution?
110.94
What is the molecular weight of CaCl(2) if the atomic weight of Ca is 40.08 and the atomic weight of Cl is 35.43?
1
What is the valence of NaCl?
29.2
What is the weight of one osmole of NaCl? (molecular weight = 58.4)