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18 terms

Biology Vocab DNA Test

Bio Test on Monday vocab over DNA. I dont know all of them but am working on getting the rest. Please edit what i didn't get.
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Transformation
The incorporation of new genes into a cell from DNA that the cell takes up from the surrounding environment
32P, 35S
the radioactive isotopes of phosphorus and sulfur used in the Hershey-Chase experiment to prove that DNA is the genetic material
Chargaff's Rule
The amount of A is the amount of T; The amount of C is the amount of G
Rosalind Franklin
She worked to make an X-ray crystallography of DNA and found it to be a double helix of uniform diameter (~ 2nm)
Maurice Wilkins
Worked to make an X-ray crystallography of DNA and found it to be a double helix of uniform diameter (~ 2nm) with Rosalind Franklin
antiparallel
characterizes the double helix structure of DNA. this deals with the 5 prime and 3 prime arrangement of the nucleotides and how they go in opposite directions because of it.
origin of replication
Where DNA replication begins usually right in the middle
helicase
Binds the helix at the origin and unwinds the DNA
RNA primase
lay down the primers for DNA replication to begin
RNA primers
the "starting point" from which the the DNA polymerase is able to bond the free nucleotides in a 5'-3' direction
DNA polymerase
The enzymes that bond free DNA nucleotides to a growing daughter strand
ligase
An enzyme that links the pieces of DNA together into a single DNA strand
Proof reader enzymes (DNA polymerases)
Removes errors and replaces with correct bases and removes primers and replaces DNA
Continuous replication
the replication that occurs on the leading strand in which the nucleotides can be assembled continuously; that is "without fragments"
Discontinuous Replication
This results in Okazaki fragments
Template Strand
the original strand of DNA which polymerase reads and then uses to synthesize a complementary strand
Semiconservative replication
Where in DNA replication half the parental model is conserved in each daughter molecule
Taq polymerase
bonds the free nucleotides together in DNA amplification within the PCR machine. we get these from thermus aquaticus bacteria that live in the hot springs.