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History Chapter 18
Terms in this set (100)
Which two sides faced off in the period after World War II
NATO and Warsaw Pact
The Soviets launched a massive invasion of Czechoslovakia in August of 1968 because earlier that year they Czech leader introduced some freedoms and limited democracy. That time became known as the _______ (type answer)
Everyone knew that a nuclear war would destroy both sides, but both sides engaged in a race to match each other's weapons. The result was a "_____"
balance of terror
The ABMs or anti-ballistic missiles could shoot down other missiles from hostile countries. What types of missiles could the ABMs shoot down? Please provide the initials (type answer)
In 1953 Nikita Khrushchev emerged as the new Soviet leader. He maintained communist party control but closed prison camps and eased censorship. With the West, he called for "_______" (2 words- type answer)
In 1969 the United States and the Soviet Union began the Salt talks to _____
limit the number of nuclear weapons held by each side
In 1959 Fidel Castro led an army that rebelled against a corrupt dictator and then set about to transform the country. This transformation was known as the _____
By 1968 the United States, Soviet Union and 3 other countries had nuclear weapons. These nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for what reason?
The agreement was to not develop nuclear weapons and stop the spread of them also
Many Americans build Fallout Shelters for protection in the 1950s. What is fallout?
the radioactive particles from a nuclear explosion
Who coined the term, "Iron Curtain"?
The West German Chancellor led them from 1949 to 1963 and focused on rebuilding cities, factories, and trade?
Japan's success after World War II was built on producing _____
goods for export
After World War II, what was one reason Japan enjoyed success?
Japan spent little money on its own military and could invest more in its economy
During the postwar decades, many Americans moved to the states in the South or Southwest part of the United States. This area is known as the ___
President's Kennedy and Johnson expanded social programs such as ____ to help the elderly. President Reagan felt that ___ was the best way to improve the lives of Americans
Medicare, cutting taxes
As Americans grew more prosperous, many _____
moved from the city to the suburbs
How did Japan change in the postwar years?
It became a democracy
What was created to establish free trade among the member nations for all products?
Dr. Martin L. King Jr emerged as the leader of the civil rights movement. His leadership in this movement caused other groups such as: Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans. They all demanded _____
Which nation was divided after World War II and later reunited
Who was the Supreme Commander of the United Nations forces in Korea?
Mao urged a superhuman output to increase farm and industrial output. What was created as a result of this effort?
The largest man-made famine in history
Who were the Red Guards?
Students and young factory workers
An armistice ended the fighting, but
technically not the war
Why did the Nationalists lose support as support for the Communists grew?
Nationalist policy led to economic hardship around China
The Communists took control of the country, where did the Nationalists end up?
What did the commune system do to farm output which cause a lack of food in China?
It cut incentives for workers and their families
The communist believed that many thousands of people belonged to the "bourgeoisie" or _____. they were beaten, sent to labor camps or killed
What did Western nations fear between the Soviet Union and China?
A strong alliance between the countries
Very similar to Stalin, Mao called for a superhuman effort to increase output in China. The ____ is associated with backyard industries turning out low quality useless goods
Great Leap Foward
"I don't think that unless a greater effort I made by the government to win popular support that the war can be won out there... We can help them, we can give them equipment, we can send our men out there as advisers, but they have to win it, the people of Vietnam, against the Communists."
What is the main idea of President's Kennedy's comment
Civil wars could only be won by the people of a nation, not with outside forces
The power of the United States was no match for ____
the thick jungle brush
The leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem became a issue with the United States in the early 1960s. What was the result of this photo? (guy sitting in the streets catching himself on fire)
The United States began to cut support to the government of Diem
The Paris Peace Accord established a cease-fire and the United States agreed to ____
withdraw its troops
This turning point in the war was a well coordinated attack that was a military loss but public opinion about the war changed because of it?
The deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group is called _____ (type answer)
Even though the United States had superior firepower, the North Vietnamese's advantage was
their knowledge of the countryside
Why did Americans come to oppose the United States involvement in the Vietnam War?
many Americans were missing in action, many Americans had been taken prisoner, many Americans resented the draft, many Americans had been killed (just select all)
What was president Harry S Truman's response to the letter he received from Ho Chi Minh?
He sent advisers and aid to the French
Why did Vietnamese guerrillas fight the French in Indochina?
to win independence
Vietnam was divided into 2 territories with the agreement that ____
elections be held to unite the 2 Vietnams
The Khmer Rouge that emerged can be compared to the ___ in China
The ____ put an end to the Cambodian genocide by invading the country
Another name for the Vietnamese New Years was ___
Pol Pot renamed the country, turned the year back to zero, and wanted to create a ____ by destroying all Western influence
Because of this battle the French withdrew from Vietnam and the United States was fearful of all Southeast Asia falling to communism
Battle of Dienbienphu
Which of the following communist countries (2), reformed its economy like the Soviet Union did?
(select all because don't known answer) Vietnam, North Korea, Cuba, China
Mikhail Gorbachev sought to avoid confrontation. After taking over the Soviet Union he signed treaties with the United States and
pulled the Soviet troops of out Afghanistan
Which of the following countries most recently re-established ties with the United States?
The Russian War in Afghanistan proved to be as difficult as ____
the American war in Vietnam
Using equipment taken from Germany after World War II, the Soviet Union rebuilt its industries and ____
launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik I
President Ronald Reagan launched his Strategic Defense Initiative which out a strain on the Soviet economy. The Soviets could not afford to match the United States dollar for dollar. This Initiative was called
In Russia the collectivization of agriculture was ____
Mikhail Gorbachev changed parts of the Soviet economy. One move he made was to give ____ the power to make economic decisions instead of central planner s
In Poland, led by ____, an independent labor union organized and demanded political as well as economic change
After nearly 70 years the Soviet Republics broke away. These nations formed the _____
Commonwealth of Independent States
What were all the ways the US and the USSR were competing during the Cold War
Militarily, politically, and economically
What was the goal of containment?
to limit communist power and influence
The united states attempted to bring down the new communist regime in cuba by invading the country. The bay of pigs invasion ended in failure for the US. the united states imposed a --- on cuba
In 1979 the era of detente ended when the Soviet Union ______.
Why was the wall built to divide Berlin?
East German workers, unhappy with communism, fled to West Berlin
The United States formed alliances with many nations called SEATO and CENTO. They also formed alliances with Japan and South Korea. The Soviet Union formed its own alliances. The Soviet Union and all of its allies became know as the---
Because government felt responsible for the social and economic needs for the people countries created a---
Which Supreme Court case started the United States to desegregate the entire country
Brown v The Board of Education
In Great Britain-- was a Conservative Prime Minister that thought the welfare state was costly and inefficient. She began to limit social welfare programs
After World War II Germany had been split into two, West and East. The United States, Britain and France in the West and Soviet Union in the East. What was the goal before the split?
Hold elections throughout Germany to vote for a single government
Women faced discrimination in the United States also. Their movement fought --- during the 1960s and 1970s
How did China change as a result of its Communist Revolution?
It became a one-party totalitarian state
As United Nations forces approached the Yalu River, they never thought ---
The Chinese would cross the river
After the war South Korea slowly rebuilt its economy and was eventually pressed into direct elections which began their transition to --
The Cultural Revolution's goal was to purge China of "bourgeois" tendencies. Mao urged the young to ---
Experience revolution firsthand
What was the main advantage for the United States to improve relations with China?
It isolated the Soviet Union between NATO countries and China
Since China was a "wild card," the United States took a chance at starting diplomatic relations. Through "ping pong" diplomacy President _______ visited China in 1971.
What role did the United Nations play in the conflict between the two Koreas?
The United Nations sent mostly American military aid to support South Korea
One of the main reasons Mao's communist triumphed was he
Won support of China's huge peasant population
The goal of Kim Il Sung was to
Reunite the Korean peninsula by force
The 38th Parallel today is a place where North Korea and South Korean troops come face to face only a few feet apart at times. It is one of the most interesting places in the world, what city does this happen in?
What did the commune system do to farm output which causes a lack of food in China
It cut incentives for workers and their families
How did mainland China see Taiwan
As a breakaway province
--- is a nationalist, a communist, and led the Vietnamese against the French then the United States
Ho Chi Minh
President Johnson reported to Congress that US ships had been attacked. This led to the US Congress passing a resolution authorizing the President to take necessary measures to prevent further aggression. The attacks and resolution are named after the ---
Gulf of Tonkin
Two years after the American troops left, North Vietnam conquered the South and unified the country. The South Vietnamese capital was renamed ______.
Ho Chi Minh City
The Cambodians were drawn into the Vietnam War because of the American bombing in their country. Cambodian guerrillas, the _____, gained power and eventually took over the country.
The North Vietnamese ran supplies on trails through the jungles of Cambodia and Laos. The Americans bombed this trail called the _____
Ho Chi Minh Trail
What gave workers little incentive to produce better quality goods?
Lifetime job security
The economic change that occurred in the nations formed after the breakup of the Soviet Union would BEST be described as shifting from _______.
Command to market
What did the end of the Soviet Union mean for the United States?
We became the world's only superpower
Out of all the Eastern Bloc countries, which one resisted the move toward a market economy or political freedom the most?
After the collapse of communism, what did Czechoslovakia do?
Divided into the new nations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic
After the Soviet Union eased control over Eastern Europe most changes came peacefully. One exception was _____, Romania's dictator that refused to step down. He was overthrown and executed.
In the late 1980s, Germany moved toward reunification. What was one reason that led to German voters approving reunification?
The decline of the Soviet Union
In the early 1970s, a political crisis caused OPEC to ______ oil exports leading to ______ oil prices.
From where did the US First Marine Division of the United Nations forces have to escape from?
In an attempt to increase productivity, Mao forces ______. The peasants had to pool land and labor.
Faced with conflict at home and abroad, President Johnson decided ______.
To not run for a second term
______ chronicled the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge with a series of paintings like the one below.
We discussed six stages of the Korean War place those stages in order
1. North Korea attacks South Korea
2. The United Nations led by the US were pushed back to the pusan perimeter
3. the Americans went around the corner and landed at Inchon
4. The Americans pushed into Seoul and then tuned to the north and head to the Yalu
5. An entire new war is created with the Chinese helping out the North Koreans
6. an armistice is signed and the Korean war is now a stalemate
after defeating the nationalists the communist wanted to unite all of China and focused on tibet. what was the result of the conquering of tibet
it forced the Dalai Lama to flee the country
opponents of the communist were called _____ they were beaten or sent to labor camps
In north Korea economic growth slowed bc of the emphasize on ____
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