Adult & Aging Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (118)
Definition of health:
State of physical, mental, and social well-being (not simply the absence of a disability)
What is the most common chronic condition among all age groups?
Activities of daily living (ADL) definition:
The measures of ability to adapt to everyday life, includes several activities.
What are the 5 activities of daily living?
bathing, dressing, transferring, using the toilet, and eating
What is the definition of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL's):
Measures of ability to adapt to everyday living, involves several instrumental activities
What are the 8 activities of instrumental activities of daily living?
use telephone, go shopping, prepare meals, complete housekeeping tasks, do laundry, use private/public transportation, take medications, handle finances
Congestive heart failure:
A chronic condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body's other organs
What happens in the body during congestive heart failure?
Blood flows out of the heart at an increasingly slower rate, causing the blood returning to the heart through the veins to back up. Eventually, the tissues become congested with fluid
behavioral risk factors combine to produce higher rates of stroke in the US withing the southeastern region. Southeast is considered "stroke belt", with 8 to 12 states having higher stroke mortality than the rest of the country.
The cluster of symptoms associated with high risk factors for cardiovascular (& other) diseases.
Symptoms of metabolic syndrome:
high levels of abdominal obesity aka waist circumference (men > 40 in, women > 35 in), high blood fats or triglycerides (> = 150 mg/L), abnormal levels of blood cholesterol, HDL is good kind (men < 40 mg/dL, women < 50 mg/dL), blood pressure or hypertension (> = 130/ > = 85), fasting glucose or high glucose (> = mg/dL)
Symptoms of metabolic syndrome (without measurements):
abdominal obesity, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose
screening is the first line of treatment
Who should be screened for cancer?
People at risk based on their age, sex, and lifestyle
Examples of cancer screening:
breast self-examination, mammograms, prostate exams, colon cancer screenings
Abnormal loss of bone mineral content, said to occur when the bone mineral density reaches the point that is more than 2.5 standard deviations below the mean of young, white, non-Hispanic women
Risk factors of osteoporosis:
race, ethnicity, hormonal changes, lack of vitamin D (women, white & Asian women, small bone structure, underweight, excessive alcohol, smoking, etc.)
Treatment of osteoporosis:
exercise (resistance), nutritional supplements, medication
What is the best way to prevent and treat osteoporosis?
What is the most important means of preventing type 2 diabetes?
Control of glucose intake, blood pressure, and blood lipids
How to prevent diabetes?
frequent measuring of blood glucose levels, and diet and exercise may be sufficient to control
If dieting and exercise are not enough to control diabetes, what needs to be done?
Insulin injections or oral medications
There is a greater probability of death in those who have become widowed compared to those who are married.
What is the widowhood effect mediated by?
Conditions like depression, stress, economic hardship, and loss of social support
A speech pattern directed at older adults similar to the way people talk to babies. Infantilizing and patronizing speech. "honey, dear, cute"
The recall of events to be performed in the future. You have to remember your intention to perform an action.
Prospective memory and aging:
This declines as we age
What is one of the most pervasive set of changes to occur in the brain of a person with Alzheimer's?
The formation of abnormal deposits of protein fragments known as amyloid plaques.
What is amyloid plaques?
A genetic name for protein fragments that collect together in a specific way to form insoluble deposits. (beta-amyloid)
How are amyloid plaques formed?
APP sticks through the membrane as it is being made, then enzymes cleave beta-amyloid protein, releasing it into the space outside the neuron, then clumps of beta-amyloid collect and begin to form a plaque
A profusion of abnormally twisted fibers within the neurons themselves - tangled nerve fibers
How are neurofibrillary tangles formed?
microtubules disintegrate, microtubule subunits fall apart, leaving tangled clumps of tau proteins
First and second changes seen in the brain with alzheimers:
amyloid plaques and nerofibrilliary tangles
The stress caregivers experience in the daily management of their afflicted relative
What factors contribute to caregiver stress?
They have to provide physical assistance in basic life functions: eating, dressing, toileting
High rates of health problems, depression, stress, and isolation
What are protective factors of Alzheimer's disease?
mental activity, social support, limited alcohol, Mediterranean diet, physical exercise
Eating primarily plant-based foods, like fruits, veggies, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, replacing butter with healthy fats, herbs instead of salt
What are the other types of dementia besides Alzheimer's?
vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, mixed dementia, Parkinson's
A decline in thinking skills caused by conditions that block or reduce blood flow to the brain
Caused by progressive nerve cell loss in the brains frontal or temporal lobes
Dementia with Lewy Bodies:
Leads to a decline in thinking, reasoning, and independent function because of abnormal microscopic deposits that damage brain cells over time
What causes vascular dementia?
Caused by damage to arteries supplying the brain
What happens to those with frontotemporal dementia?
Personality changes like apathy, lack of inhibition, obsessiveness, addictive behaviors, and loss of judgement. Some changes in language or personality may be primary
What does dementia with Lewy bodies cause?
Progressive loss of memory, language, reasoning, and other higher mental functions.
What is seen in dementia with Lewy bodies but not in Alzheimer's?
Episodes of confusion and hallucinations
What are the risk factors of cardiovascular disease?
tobacco smoking, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, alcohol
Tobacco smoking cardiovascular risk factor:
Damages the arteries making them more vulnerable to plaque formation
Sedentary lifestyle cardiovascular risk factor:
People with sedentary leisure activities more likely to have heart disease
Unhealthy diet cardiovascular risk factor:
High BMI is related to higher disease incidence
Alcohol cardiovascular risk factor:
Moderate alcohol use has protective effect for women
General slowing hypothesis:
General slowing hypothesis proposes loss of speed in nervous system is main cause of poorer information processing
Age complexity hypothesis:
Proposes that through slowing of central processes in the nervous system, age differences increase as tasks become more complex and processing resources are stretched to their limit
You must say the color of the word but not the name of the word -> looks at delayed reaction times
The ability to direct and focus cognitive activity on specific stimuli
Left-handed turns and older drivers:
Depth perception has deteriorated over the years, and reaction times are slower
Positive traits of younger drivers:
Have faster response times
Negative traits of younger drivers:
More likely to drink and drive, more likely to drive while distracted
Positive behaviors of older adult drivers:
More experience, self-regulate
Negative behaviors of older adult drivers:
difficulty with left turns, difficulty merging or yielding
What psychological factors affect driving?
Internal distractions cause anxiety
decreased activation and less deactivation during memory tasks. However. high-functioning older adults may be able to draw on default network during working memory tasks
Default mode network:
A network of interacting brain regions known to have activity highly correlated with each other and distinct from other networks in the brain
A situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social groups
Stereotype threat and aging:
Stereotype threat reduces memory performance
Memory and stress:
Stress and depression can interfere with memory performance
Types of memory that decline in later life:
episodic memory, source memory, false memory, tip-of-the-tongue (names), prospective memory
The memory of autobiographical events - times, places, associated memories, etc.
Recalling the source of learned information - knowledge of when or where something was learned
A recollection of an event that did not occur
Failing to retrieve a word from memory
Involves remembering to preform a planned action or recall a planned intention
Types of memory that do not decline with old age:
flashbulb memory, semantic memory, procedural memory, implicit memory, autobiographical memory
What age-related changes influence driving:
vision, motor skills, cognitive abilities, side effects of medications
The higher-order cognitive skills needed to make decisions, plan, and allocate mental resources to a task. Selective attention, mental flexibility, and inhibition
Does aging have a positive or negative effect on executive functioning?
3 types of neuropsychological assessments:
Trail making tests, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery
Trail Making Tests "Trails":
Assess frontal lobe functioning: attention, scan visual stimuli, follow sequence of numbers
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)
Ability to form mental sets in categorizing cards with related features
Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB):
22 subtests: visual memory, working memory, executive functioning, attention, verbal memory, decision making, response control
Classic Aging Pattern:
The idea that intelligence looks like an inverted U-shape, peaks in early adulthood followed by steady decline
Classing aging pattern repeated testing patterns:
The finding was either no decline or decline that did not become evident until very late in life
Cohort effects in the Seattle Longitudinal Study:
Later born cohorts had higher scores on all abilities except # and had lower rate of decline
Negative changes in cognitive ability that affect language:
slower reading rate, changes in hearing and speech perception, slowing of cognitive functions, retrieval deficits, simpler grammatical structures, working memory deficits
Preservation factors of cognitive abilities that affect language:
semantic memory is retained or greater, able to get the gist of story, no problem with paralinguistic elements of speech, activate the right hemisphere more, greater experience with language, more cognitive complexity
Explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires and beliefs
Skip generation families:
Grandparents exclusively care for grandchildren
Couples who are similar are happy
Need complementarity theory:
Couples who are different are happier
Enduring dynamics pathway:
A couple's interactions early in relationship characterize course of relationship over time
Emergent distress pathway:
Relationships begin to develop problems over time, made worse by poor conflict resolution
Couple starts out happy and in love and develops problems over time
attempts to change situation
attempts to change appraisal
What age group seems to cope better with stress?
Immature defense mechanisms:
projection, hypochondriasis, acting out
Projection defense mechanism:
Attributing unacceptable ideas and feelings to others
Hypochondriasis defense mechanism:
Expressing psychological conflict as exaggerated physical complaints
Acting out defense method:
Engaging in destructive behavior that expresses inner conflicts
What are the mature defense mechanisms:
altruism, sublimation, humor
Altruism defense mechanism:
Turning unacceptable feelings into behavior that is helpful to others
Sublimation defense mechanism:
Expressing unacceptable feelings in productive activity
Humor defense mechanism:
Being able to laugh at an unpleasant or disturbing feeling or situation
highly detailed, vivid snapshot of the moment and circumstances
Processes ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience- common knowledge, like name of a color
Responsible for knowing how to do things, or motor skills
Unconscious memory. Uses past experiences to remember things without thinking about them
Episodes collected from an individuals life, combo of episodic and semantic memory
Paralinguistic elements of speech:
Vocal signals beyond the basic verbal message. Conveys meaning beyond the words used - pitch, rate, quality of voice, amplitude
What are the stages in problem solving?
Assess the current situation, decide on desired end state, transform current into desired state
Assess the current situation example
How much money is in your account
Decide on desired end state example
Having money left at the end of the month
Transform current into desired state example
Allocate your spending
Everyday problem solving
(?) Performance is related to reaction time and health in older AA's
The general ability to think abstractly, reason, identify patterns, solve problems, and discern relationships
The ability to use learned knowledge and experience
Fluid intelligence changes...
Peaks in adolescence and starts to progressively decline around 30 or 40
Crystallized intelligence changes...
Tends to peak later in life, hitting apex around 60. Continues to grow throughout adulthood