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71 terms

Pharmacology Test 1 - Antibiotics

Pharmacology
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UTI, URI
sulfonamides are mainly used to treat
pregnancy @ term, infants < 2mo
sulfonamides are contraindicated in:
photosensitivity, high concentration in kidneys
adverse effects of sulfonamides
bactrim, septra
ex. of sulfonamides
2-3L
sulfonamides should be taken with __ water/day
sulfonamides
avoid taking __ with sulfonylurea, warfarin, and OC
pcn, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams
beta lactams include:
respiratory infections, otitis media, pneumonia, gonorrhea, septicemia, meningitis, peritonitis
PCNs treat:
electrolyte imbalance, taste alterations
main PCN adverse effects
neomycin, potassium, NSAIDs, OC, rifampin, warfarin
PCN medication interactions
augmentin and zosyn
PCN beta lactamase compounds
cephalosporins
__are used for UTI, postop infections, meningitis
renal impairment
cephalosporins are contraindicated in patients with
rash, redness, edema
adverse effects of cephalosporins
Ceftobiprole (5th gen cephalosporin)
used to treat MRSA
cephalosporins and flagyl
avoid consumption of alcohol with __
carbapenems
treats body cavity, bone and joint infections
renal impairment
contraindication of carbapenems
carbapenems
seizures are an adverse effect with __
Primaxin
ex. of carbapenem
Ancef/Keflex, Mefoxin/Ceftin, Rocephin, Maxipime, Cetobiprole
Cephalosporins: 1st through 5th Gen =
macrolides
used to treat haemophilus, mycoplasma, chlamydia, streptococcus infections
macrolides and tetracycline
used to treat lyme disease
macrolides
helps with GI motility
macrolides
adverse effects include flatulence, hearing loss, hepatotoxicity, jaundice
macrolides
excellent alternative for pt with PCN allergy
macrolides
assess cardiac/renal/liver function and clotting status with __
tetracyclines
used to treat Chlamydia, Richettsia, H. Pylori
acne, peridontal disease, lyme disease, syphilis, gonorrhea
tetracylines treat
pregnancy, BF, children < 8yo
tetracycline contraindications
antacids, antidiarrheals, dairy products, iron, oral anticoagulants
medication interactions for tetracycline
discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity, yeast infection
adverse effects of tetracycline
doxycycline
ex. of tetracycline
tetracyclines
with __ you should assess renal and liver function, monitor for yeast and superinfection, avoid sun exposure, take PO with 8oz fluids
aminoglycosides
treats bacterial endocarditis, valvular heart disease, meningitis, prophylaxis GI or GU Sx
aminoglycosides
are commonly used with other antibiotics
pregnancy C&D, BF, renal disease
aminiglycosides contraindications
aminoglycosides
avoid loop diuretics and oral anticoagulants with __
aminoglycosides and vancomycin
peak and trough levels should be monitored with __
garamycin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin
ex. of Aminoglycosides
aminoglycosides
you should assess baseline hearing and renal function before administering __
quinolones
used to treat skin, GI, bone, joint, UTI, and STD infections
quinolones
__ are contraindicated in children, elderly, cardiac dysrhythmias, renal failure
quinolones
adverse effects include prolonged QT interval, tendonitis, constipation, blurred vision
antacids, iron, probenecid, oral anticoagulants
medication interactions for quinolones
ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin
ex. of quinolones
quinolones
assess for CNS disorders, renal and liver function
quinolones
administer 2 hours before meals
quinolones
increase intake of foods that are high in ascorbic acid
quinolones
be sure to take all doses
clindamycin
used to treat chronic bone infections, GU tract infections, intraabdominal infections, and soft tissue infections
clindamycin
contraindications include ulcerative colitis and infants < 1mo
clindamycin
adverse effects include pseudomembraneous colitis and nephrotoxicity
clindamycin
never give with neuromuscular blocking drugs
zyvox
used for vancomycin resistant enterococcus faecium (VRE)
zyvox
used for hospital acquired pneumonia
zyvox
used for diabetic foot infections
zyvox
adverse effect is decreased platelet count
flagyl
treats protozoal infections such as trichomoniasis
flagyl
used with c. Diff
flagyl
assess neurologic, GI, and GU dysfunction
macrodantin
treats UTI by e. coli, s. aureus, or klebsiella
macrodantin
adverse effects include peripheral neuropathy and hepatotoxicity
macrodantin
side effect is orange urine
renal and liver function
with macrodantin you should assess for
vancomycin
choice drug for MRSA
vancomycin
adverse effects include ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and redman syndrome
vancomycin
assess GI and renal systems, hearing testing, and ensure adequate hydration
pcn, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides
treat meningitis
bactrim, cephalosporins, quinolones, macrodantin
treat UTIs
pcn, macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones
treat syphilis and gonorrhea