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chapter 7

STUDY
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How many bones make up the axial skeleton?
D) 80
Which of the following is a function of the axial skeleton?
A) provides an attachment for muscles that move the appendicular skeleton
B) provides an attachment for muscles that move the head, neck, and trunk
C) provides protection for the brain and spinal cord
D) provides an attachment for muscles involved in respiration
E) All of the answers are correct
Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?
A) pelvic girdle
Which of the following articulate in the mandibular fossa?
C) condylar process
The internal acoustic meatus is located in which bone?
B) temporal
The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the
D) atlas
The hard palate of the roof of the mouth is mostly formed by the
B) palatine process of the maxillae.
The foramen magnum is found in the ________ bone.
A) occipital
The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bones with the frontal bone is the ________
suture.
B) coronal
The calvaria (or skullcap) is formed by the ________ bones.
A) frontal, parietal, and occipital
The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of processes from which two bones?
B) temporal and zygomatic
The prominent bulge just posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus is the
B) mastoid process.
Which of these is not one of the facial bones?
D) frontal
Each of the following landmarks is associated with the occipital bone except the
A) petrous process.
The superior and inferior temporal lines mark the points of attachment for
muscles that close the mouth
What organ is located in the lacrimal fossa?
tear gland
A point of attachment for muscles that rotate or extend the head is the
mastoid process
Ligaments that support the hyoid bone are attached to the
styloid process.
Each of the following is associated with the temporal bone, except the
sella turcica.
The hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica contains the ________ gland.
A) pituitary
Each of the following structures is associated with the sphenoid bone, except the
cribriform plate
A membrane that stabilizes the position of the brain is attached to the
crista galli
A skull bone that could be described as looking like a bat with wings extended is the
sphenoid
The nasal conchae
create turbulence in the nasal passageways.
The bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by the
perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and vomer bone.
Of the following bones, which is unpaired?
vomer
The styloid process, zygomatic process, and auditory ossicles are associated with the
temporal bone
The hyoid bone is suspended by ________ ligaments.
stylohyoid
Identify the structure the occipital bone surrounds.
foramen magnum
The skull contains ________ bones.
22
While playing softball, Gina is struck in the frontal squama by a wild pitch. Which of the following
complaints would you expect her to have?
a headache
The alveolar process of the mandible
supports the lower teeth
The smallest facial bones are the
lacrimal bones.
Ridges that anchor muscles that stabilize the head are the
D) inferior and superior nuchal lines.
The hyoid bone
A) is linked to the styloid process by a ligament.
B) does not directly articulate with other bones.
C) attaches to tongue muscles.
D) is superior to the larynx.
E) All of the answers are correct.
The function of the hyoid bone is to
anchor the tongue muscles
Damage to the temporal bone would most likely affect the sense(s) of
hearing and balance
Premature closure of the sagittal suture would result in
a long and narrow head.
Jack gets into a fight and is punched in the nose. Which of the following bones might be fractured?
ethmoid bone
As the result of an accident, Bill suffers a dislocated jaw. This injury would involve the
condylar process of the mandible.
You witness one of your friends in a fight. Your friend Greg is hit in the jaw and when looking at
him, his face looks misaligned. You immediately take him to the emergency room and are not
surprised to learn that he has a broken
mandible.
The facial nerve (N. VII) passes through internal acoustic meatus and then through the
stylomastoid foramen
The large foramen that serves as a passageway for the medulla of the brain and the accessory nerve
(XI) is the
foramen magnum.
Nerves carrying sensory information from the lips and the chin pass through the
mental foramina.
A nerve that carries sensory information from the teeth and gums of the lower jaw passes through
the
mandibular foramen
The ________ passes through the ________.
internal jugular vein; jugular foramen
Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex, except the ________ bone
nasal
The nasal complex consists of all of the following bones, except the
zygomatic.
The paranasal sinuses are located in all of the following bones, except the
zygomatic.
Which statement(s) about the functions of the paranasal sinuses is/are true?
A) The mucus they secrete enters the nasal cavities.
B) They provide an extensive area of mucous epithelium.
C) They make skull bones lighter.
D) They support cilia that move the mucus.
E) All of the answers are correct.
The floor of the orbital complex is formed by the
maxilla.
The largest sinus is within which bone?
maxilla
The role(s) of the sinuses include(s):
making the skull lighter and production of mucus that moistens and cleans the air
A bent nasal septum that slows or prevents sinus drainage is known clinically as a ________
septum.
deviated
Sutures can be found at all of the joints of an adult skull, except between
the mandible and the cranium.
If there were no paranasal sinuses, all of the following would be true, except
the ability to sneeze would be impaired.
Each of the following statements concerning the development of the skull is true, except that
all the bones of the skull develop from one single ossification focus.
The soft fibrous membrane in an infant's skull located at the junction of the frontal, coronal, and
sagittal sutures is the
anterior fontanelle.
The term for an undersized head is
microcephaly.
The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are
fontanels.
Fibrous connective tissue called ________ accommodates brain growth in infants.
fontanels
The most significant skull growth occurs before the age of
5
While you're visiting your friend who recently gave birth, she comments on her infant's soft spot.
You think to yourself that the correct term for the "soft spot" located at the intersection of the
frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures is
anterior fontanel
While volunteering in an outpatient clinic for underprivileged families in your neighborhood, you
observe the nurse assessing an infant. The mother had complained about the baby not eating and
having several episodes of diarrhea lasting 3 days. You know the nurse suspects possible
dehydration when she
points out the dryness of the infant's diaper.
The four curves of the adult spinal column are not all present at birth. Which of the following are
the secondary curves, those that do not appear until several months later?
cervical and lumbar
An exaggerated lateral curvature is termed
scoliosis.
The four spinal curves include all but one of the following. Identify the exception.
E) sacral
The primary spinal curves
accommodate the thoracic and abdominopelvic viscera.
The vertebral column contains ________ thoracic vertebrae
12
The vertebral column contains ________ lumbar vertebrae.
5
The vertebral arch is formed by the pedicles and the
laminae
The part of the vertebrae that transfers weight along the axis of the vertebral column is the
vertebral body
Most mammals, including humans and giraffes, have ________ cervical vertebrae.
7
Vertebrae of which regions are fused in the adult?
sacral and coccygeal regions
The widest intervertebral discs are found in the ________ region
lumbar
As you move in an inferior direction along the vertebral column,
the vertebral bodies become relatively larger
The odontoid process is found on the
axis.
The vertebra prominens is another name for the ________ vertebra.
seventh cervical
Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of
facets for the articulation of ribs.
Which of the following are distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae?
A) no transverse foramen
B) long spinous processes
C) rib articulations
D) heart-shaped bodies
E) All of the answers are correct.
The distinguishing feature of a cervical vertebra is the
transverse foramen
Which of these types of vertebrae and their numbers is not correct?
sacral: 1
All of the following are true of the sacrum, except that it
articulates with the second and third lumbar vertebrae.
Gesturing "no" with the head depends on the structure(s) of which cervical vertebrae?
both the atlas and the axis
The ribs articulate with the ________ of the vertebrae.
transverse processes
All of the following are true of lumbar vertebrae, except that
the vertebral bodies are thin and delicate
Which of the following statements about the coccyx is true?
A) anchors a muscle that constricts the anal opening
B) fusion is delayed until mid-20s
C) is the most caudal vertebral region
D) consists of three to five coccygeal vertebrae
E) All of the answers are correct.
Lumbar vertebrae are ________ massive and ________ mobile.
most; least
The ribs articulate with the
thoracic vertebrae.
Humans normally have ________ pairs of ribs
12
The part of the sternum that articulates with the clavicles is the
manubrium.
Which bone(s) include(s) a manubrium?
sternum
A tubercle of a rib articulates with
the costal facets of thoracic vertebrae.
The true ribs are
ribs 1-7 and are called verterbrosternal ribs.
The sternum contains
All of the answers are correct
Ossification of the sternum is not complete until at least age
C) 25.
While performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on an unconscious person, you are careful
to position your hands correctly to avoid damage to the
ribs and xiphoid process