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ear
a small stroke that projects from the upper right side of the bowl on the lowercase roman G
bracket
transition between the serif and the stem (i.e. T)
link
the stroke that connects the bowl and the loop of lowercase G
1 inch =
6 picas
1 pica =
12 points
72 points =
1 inch
6 picas written as
6p
5 picas, 6 points written as
5p6
12 points written as
12 pt
barb
half-serif finish on some curved strokes (i.e.: CSG)
body
12 point text and less
headline/title
type above 12 points
counter
negative space within a letterform
old style numeral
set of numbers that are compatible with lowercase letters ; 'lowercase numerals'
serifs
short strokes that extend from and at an angle to the upper and lower ends of the major strokes of a letterform
hyphen
used to join words to indicate that they have a combined meaning ; grammar. (-) (shortest)
en-dash
one en or half of an en wide. used between digits or words to indicate RANGE. means "to" (med longest)
em-dash
one em wide. used as a phrase marker and is usually set with a space on either side. (longest)
beak
half-serif finish on some horizontal arms
leg
short stroke off the stem of a letterform, either at the bottom of the stroke or inclined downward
ligature
typographic character formed by combining two or more letters together (tracking)
lining figures
numbers that are the same size as uppercase letters ; also called tabular numerals.
eye
enclosed part of the lowercase e.
tail
diagonal stroke or loop at the end of a letter (i.e.: R or j); at the finish of certain letterforms
crossbar
horizontal stroke connecting two sides of a letterform (e, A, H) or bisecting the main stroke as in f and t
hairline
thinnest stroke within a typeface that has strokes of varying weights
arm
the short strokes off the stem of the letterform, either horizontal (E, F, T) or inclined upward (K, Y).
contrast
change in contrast between thick and thin strokes that can alter the optical qualities of a letter form
shoulder
the curved stroke that is not part of a bowl
apex
peak of the triangle of an uppercase A. point created by joining two diagonal stems called APEX when above , called VERTEX when below
italics
forms in true italics refer to the 15th century italian cursive handwriting. based on the roman form of the typeface
weight
lightness/heaviness of a typeface determined by ratio of stroke thickness to character height.
finial
rounded non-serif terminal to a stroke (ie: f, a)
stroke
any of the linear elements within the letter form made by a writing instrument (A)
width
ratio between vertical strokes of the letter forms and the interval of white between (HH)
bowl
curved stroke enclosing the counter form of a letter. (an exception is the bottom form of the lowercase roman g: loop.) (g)
stem
significant vertical or diagonal stroke of a letterform. (TV)
oblique
roman letters that slant to the right but are structurally the same as upright roman letters (not italics)
small caps
uppercase letterforms, drawn to the x-height of the typeface. primarily in serif fonts.
spine
curved stem of the S
stress
gradual variation in the thickness of a curved character ; ORIENTATION of letterform, indicated by thin stroke in rounded forms
terminal
the end of any stroke that does not terminate with a serif
capline
imaginary line that runs along the top of capital letters
meanline
imaginary line that establishes the height of the body of lowercase letters
x-height
distance from baseline to the mean line typically height of the lowercase letters
baseline
imaginary line upon which letters rest
descender line
imaginary line that runs along bottom of descenders
ascender
stroke on a lowercase letter that rises above the mean line (i.e.: h)
descender
a stroke on a lowercase letter that falls below the baseline
vertex
point created by joining two diagonal stems - BELOW. apex- above.
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