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230 terms

Virgnia Biology SOL Review

Biology SOL Review Vocabulary Terms
STUDY
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Scientific Method
An organized way to test scientific hypotheses
Qualitative
observation using the 5 senses (example red, blue, hot, cold)
Quantitative
Observation using measuring tools and is given in a number form (example 5 milliliters of liquid)
Dependent variable
Variable that responds(depends) on what is changed by the researcher.
Independent variable
Variable that you change in the experiment. The "I changed it" Variable.
Control
Setup where the independent variable is not changed.
Constant
Things that can change in an experiment but you want to keep the same.
Hypothesis
An educated guess.
Theory
An accepted explanation of something based on many observations and experiments.
Evidence
your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief
Analysis
an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole
Inference
the act of passing from one proposition, statement, or judgment considered as true to another whose truth is believed to follow from that of the former
Observation
an act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence often involving measurement with instruments
Conclusion
a reasoned judgment: the necessary consequence of two or more propositions taken as premises
Deduction
the deriving of a conclusion by reasoning
Kingdom
a major category (as Plantae or Protista) in biological taxonomy that ranks above the phylum and below the domain
Phylum
a primary category in biological taxonomy especially of animals that ranks above the class and below the kingdom
Class
a major category in biological taxonomy ranking above the order and below the phylum or division
Order
taxonomic group containing one or more families
Family
a taxonomic group containing one or more genera (sharks belong to the fish family)
Genus
taxonomic group containing one or more species
Species
taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
Organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
Binomial
a biological species name consisting of two terms
Taxonomy
study of the general principles of scientific classification
Taxa
animal or plant group having natural relations
Dichotomous key
a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters
Classification
the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories
Chordate
any animal of the phylum Chordata having a notochord or spinal column
Vertebrate
animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium
Invertebrate
any animal lacking a backbone or notochord; the term is not used as a scientific classification
Prokaryote
a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue-green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma
Eukaryote
an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria; i.e. an organism with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei in its cells
Archaebacteria
considered ancient life forms that evolved separately from bacteria and blue-green algae
Eubacteria
a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella
Fungi
the taxonomic kingdom of lower plants
Animalia
taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals
Protista
eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals; protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae
Monera
Old classification for all bacteria.
Protozoan
Mostly one celled Eukaryotes with no cell wall. Some are Plant like, some are animal like and some are fungus like.
Cell
basic unit of life
Unicellular
organism made of one cell
Multicellular
organism made of many cells
Herbivore
Animal that feeds on plants
Omnivore
Animal that feeds on both animal and plants
Carnivore
any animal that feeds on meat
Autotroph
Organisms who is able to make their own food (Same as a producer)
Heterotroph
Organisms that must eat food to obtain energy (Same as a consumer)
Decomposer
any of various organisms (as many bacteria and fungi) that return constituents of organic substances to ecological cycles by feeding on and breaking down dead protoplasm
Flagella
any of various elongated filiform appendages of plants or animals
Cilia
: a minute short hairlike process often forming part of a fringe; especially : one on a cell that is capable of lashing movement and serves especially in free unicellular organisms to produce locomotion or in higher forms a current of fluid
Homeostasis
metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes
Gymnosperm
plants of the class Gymnospermae having seeds not enclosed in an ovary
Angiosperm
plants having seeds in a closed ovary
vascular
of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids
Phototropism
an orienting response to light
Photoperiodism
a plant or animal's response or capacity to respond to photoperiod (a recurring cycle of light and dark periods of constant length)
Antibiotic
a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
Pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
Toxic
of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison
Cell culture
The maintenance or growth of dispersed cells in a medium after removal from the body
Wet mount
a glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liquid (as water) for microscopic examination
Chloroplast
plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments; in plants that carry out photosynthesis
Plastid
any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein
Centriole
one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules; form the asters during mitosis
Mitochondria
any of various round or long cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes
Vacuole
a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
Endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials
Lysosome
an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells (especially in leukocytes and liver and kidney cells)
Ribosome
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; ribosomes attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when a ribosome reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecule
Golgi body
an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell.
Cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell.
Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Nucleolus
a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; nucleoli contain RNA and are involved in protein synthesis
Fluid mosaic
a description of the membrane of a cell. The fluid part refers to the phospholipids of a cell membrane, which, like liquid, flow. The mosaic part refers to proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer that act as conduits through which molecules enter and exit the cell
Diffusion
the process of diffusing; the intermingling of molecules in gases and liquids as a result of random thermal agitation
Osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
Isotonic
of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes
Hypotonic
lacking normal tone or tension
Hypertonic
in a state of abnormally high tension
Solute
the dissolved substance in a solution; the component of a solution that changes its state
Solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
Solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; frequently (but not necessarily) a liquid solution
Concentration gradient
the gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density
Proton gradient
The product of the electron transport chain. A higher concentration of protons outside the inner membrane of the mitochondria than inside the membrane is the driving force behind ATP synthesis.
pH
p(otential of) H(ydrogen); the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral)
Alkaline
relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
Cohesion
the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid
Adhesion
the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
Enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
Catalyst
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
Active site
the part of an enzyme that interacts with the substrate during catalysis
Substrate
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
Denature
modify (as a native protein) especially by heat, acid, alkali, or ultraviolet radiation so that all of the original properties are removed or diminished
Monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
Polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
Molecule
the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
Compound
a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
Carbohydrate
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
Hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
Monosaccharide
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates
Polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
Lipid
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
Phospholipid
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
Hormone
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
Steroid
any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects
Protein
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs
Polypeptide
a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
Triglyceride
glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body
Amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids
Primary
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids
Secondary
depending on or incidental to what is original or primary
Tertiary
coming next after the second and just before the fourth in position
Quaternary
coming next after the third and just before the fifth in position or time or degree or magnitude; the quaternary period of geologic time extends from the end of the tertiary period to the present
Gene
a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity; genes were formerly called factor
Gene expression
conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
Genetic predisposition
an inherited genetic pattern that makes one susceptible to a certain disease
Dominant
of genes; producing the same phenotype whether its allele is identical or dissimilar
Recessive
of genes; producing its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical
Chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Haploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
Diploid
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
Phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype; two organisms with the same phenotype can have different genotypes
Genotype
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
Trait
a distinguishing feature of your personal nature
Homozygous
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Heterozygous
having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Mutation
(genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism
Albino
a person with congenital albinism: white hair and milky skin; eyes are usually pink
Inheritance
(genetics) attributes acquired via biological heredity from the parents
Test cross
a genetic test for heterozygosity in which an organism of dominant phenotype, but unknown genotype, is crossed to an organism recessive for all markers in question
Inversion
(genetics) a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed
Drosophila
small fruit fly used by Thomas Hunt Morgan in studying basic mechanisms of inheritance
Pedigree
the descendants of one individual
Sex-linked
concerning characteristics that are determined by genes carried on the sex chromosomes (on the X chromosome in particular)
Fertility
the state of being fertile; capable of producing offspring
Pollinator
an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another
Reproduction
the process of generating offspring
Fertilization
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes; of sperm and ova in an animal or pollen and ovule in a plant
Embryo
an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life
Zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)
Asexual
not having or involving sex; an asexual spore; asexual reproduction
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Development
the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level
Chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division the chromatin condenses into chromosomes
Chromatid
one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Spindle
(biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division; the fibers radiate from two poles and meet at the equator in the middle
Interphase
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions
Prophase
the first stage of mitosis/meiosis
Metaphase
the second stage of mitosis/meiosis
Anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
Telophase
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
Cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
Meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number (leading to gametes in animals and spores in plants)
Karyotype
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
DNA
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
RNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes
Nucleotide
a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside; the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
Replication
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA; the process whereby a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized on a template of complementary DNA
Translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Bioluminescence
luminescence produced by physiological processes (as in the firefly)
Electrophoresis
the motion of charged particles in a colloid under the influence of an electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative to the anode
Recombinant
of or resulting from new combinations of genetic material
Plasmid
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
Photosynthesis
synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
Chemosynthesis
synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water; limited to certain bacteria and fungi
Wavelength
the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave
Respiration
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules; processes that take place in the cells and tissues during which energy is released and carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed by the blood to be transported to the lungs
Fermentation
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
Aerobic
depending on free oxygen or air
ATP
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
Excretion
the bodily process of discharging waste matter
Metabolism
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
Transpiration
the process of giving off or exhaling water vapor through the skin or mucous membranes
Nitrogen fixation
the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria
Nitrification
the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants)
Carbon fixation
the process by which plants turn inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) into organic compounds such as carbohydrates
Carbon cycle
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
Ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
Population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
Community
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
Biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
Habitat
Where an organism lives
Niche
Job of an organism in its environment
Interaction
the direct effect that one organism on another,
Deciduous
Lose leaves at the end of the growing season
Migration
the periodic passage of groups of animals (especially birds or fishes) from one region to another for feeding or breeding
Extinction
When populations of organisms die out
Conservation
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
Larvae
The newly hatched, wingless, often wormlike form of many insects.
Flora
all the plant life in a particular region
Fauna
all the animal life in a particular region
Succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another
Estuary
the wide part of a river where it nears the sea; fresh and salt water mix
Aquatic
Based on Water
Terrestrial
Land based
Ocean trench
the deep depressions in the Earth's crust, and they comprise the deepest part of the ocean
Precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
Mutualism
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other
Parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
Commensalism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
Symbiosis
Long term interactions between two organsims
Nocturnal
Active at night
Imprinting
a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established
Instinct
inborn pattern of behavior
Mimicry
When one organism looks or acts like another to hide from or be protected from predators
Camouflage
Adaptation which allows an organism to blend in to the environment.
Evolution
The change in populations of organisms over time
Natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
Selective pressure
Something that makes it harder for an organism to survive in an environment.
Adaptation
Having the best physical or chemical characteristics to survive in an environment (example: long fur to survive the cold)
Carrying capacity
the maximum, number of organisms that can be supported for any long time in an environment.
Climax community
An community in which populations of plants or animals remain stable and exist in balance with each other and their environment
Limiting Factor
an environmental variable that limits or slows the growth or activities of an organism
Punctuated equilibrium
Ideas that evolution occurs in fits and starts rather than in a steady process of slow change
Adaptive radiation
the development of many different species from one common ancestor
Reproductive isolation
Populations of organisms become separated and can no longer interbreed.
Gradualism
Idea that species evolve slowly and continuously over long periods of geological time
Fossil
the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal
Paleontologist
Someone who studies forms of life existing in prehistoric times
Analogous
Unrelated organisms share a structure with Similar function but different design (example: Bird wing and Insect Wing)
Homologous
Related organisms share a similar structure with different function (example: Bird Wing and Human arm)
Convergent Evolution
When two unrelated organisms develop similar adaptations because they live in similar environments
Divergent Evolution
When two organisms develop from a common ancestor as a result of different environments.
Hibernate
be in an inactive or dormant state
Migrate
move from one country or region to another and settle there
Estivate
sleep during summer