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The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled 10.8 million US gallons of crude oil over the next few days. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters. The Valdez spill is the second largest in US waters, after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in terms of volume released. Prince William Sound's remote location, accessible only by helicopter, plane, or boat, made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response. The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and seabirds. The oil, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay oil field, eventually covered 1,300 miles of coastline, and 11,000 square miles of ocean. According to official reports, the ship was carrying approximately 54 million US gallons of oil, of which about 10.8 million US gallons were spilled into the Prince William Sound. A figure of 11 million US gallons was a commonly accepted estimate of the spill's volume and has been used by the State of Alaska's Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and environmental groups such as Greenpeace and the Sierra Club. Groups such as Defenders of Wildlife dispute the official estimates, maintaining that the volume of the spill, which was calculated by subtracting the volume of material removed from the vessel's tanks after the spill from the volume of the original cargo, had been under reported.
The UASI Program assists high-threat, high-density Urban Areas in efforts to build and sustain the capabilities necessary to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from acts of terrorism. The UASI program is intended to provide financial assistance to address the unique multi-discipline planning, organization, equipment, training, and exercise needs of high-threat, high-density Urban Areas, and to assist these areas in building and sustaining capabilities to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from threats or acts of terrorism using the Whole Community approach. Activities implemented with UASI funds must support terrorism preparedness by building or enhancing capabilities that relate to the prevention of, protection from, mitigation of, response to or recovery from terrorism in order to be considered eligible. However, many capabilities which support terrorism preparedness simultaneously support preparedness for other hazards. Grantees must demonstrate the dual-use quality for any activities implemented that are not explicitly focused on terrorism preparedness. Urban Areas must use UASI funds to employ regional approaches to overall preparedness and are encouraged to adopt regional response structures whenever appropriate. UASI program implementation and governance must include regional partners and should have balanced representation among entities with operational responsibilities for prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery activities within the region. In some instances, Urban Area boundaries cross State borders. States must ensure that the identified Urban Areas take an inclusive regional approach to the development and implementation of the UASI program and involve the contiguous jurisdictions, mutual aid partners, port authorities, rail and transit authorities, State agencies, Statewide Interoperability Coordinators, Citizen Corps Council(s), and campus law enforcement in their program activities. Grantees must also demonstrate the integration of children and individuals with disabilities or access and functional needs into activities implemented under this program.
The Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) program is one of five Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Homeland Security Grant Programs (HSGPs). The HSGP is an important part of the Administration's larger, coordinated effort to strengthen homeland security preparedness. The MMRS program provides funding to local or sub-State regional jurisdictions to support and enhance the integration of local emergency management, health, and medical systems into a coordinated, sustained local capability to respond effectively to a mass casualty incident. Grantees must also demonstrate how their investments will increase the effectiveness of emergency preparedness planning and response for the whole community by integrating and coordinating activities implemented under this program for children and adults with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. The responsibilities of the SAA are to: (1) Prepare, with the assistance of the MMRS Program Manager(s), one Investment that clearly identifies the State's support for the integration of local emergency management, health, and medical services to improve the local response to mass casualty events using MMRS grant funds; (2) Ensure that MMRS is represented on State Homeland Security Working Groups and UAWGs so that the interests of the local health and medical communities are well represented; (3) Ensure all neighboring MMRS sub-grantees shall actively and demonstratively collaborate to develop a regional plan that supports the MMRS mission in cases where MMRS sub-grantees are located adjacent to one another; (4) Shall coordinate with the State health representatives who work in the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program, managed by CDC, and Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP), managed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), and Strategic National Stockpile. The responsibilities of MMRS sub-grantees are to: (1) Establish and support designated MMRS leadership, such as a Steering Committee, to act as the designated POCs for program implementation; (2) Promote integration of local emergency management, health, and medical systems with their Federal and State counterparts through a locally established multi-agency, collaborative planning framework; (3) Promote sub-State regional coordination of mutual aid with neighboring localities; (4) Enhance, using MMRS funds, sub-State regional planning and training to expand and improve an integrated, inclusive health and medical response to mass casualty events; (5) Validate the sub-grantee's local emergency response capability to a mass casualty incident by means of a regular schedule of exercises that are Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP)-compatible; (6) Coordinate all MMRS expenditures with the local health department and, where appropriate, local representatives who manage PHEP grants, managed by CDC, and HPP, managed by HHS-ASPR, and Strategic National Stockpile. MMRS sub-grantees are strongly encouraged to collaborate with local, regional, and State health and medical partners, such as Medical Reserve Corps Units and Citizen Corps Councils, as well as leverage other Federal programs, such as the HHS ASPR Hospital Preparedness Program and Emergency Systems for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESAR-VHP), CDC Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI), PHEP, and Strategic National Stockpile Programs. The intent of collaboration should be to coordinate and support plans, processes, and strategies related to, but not limited to: Continuity of Government; Continuity of Operations; Age-Appropriate Equipment and Supplies Procurement; Emergency Triage and Pre-Hospital Treatment/Emergency Medical Services; 9-1-1/Medical Dispatch; Fatality Management; Forward Movement of Patients; Hospital Evacuation; Interoperable Communications; Patient Tracking; Pharmaceutical and Medical Supply Management and Distribution; Public Education; Outreach and Information; Recruiting Volunteers; and Training. Plans, processes, and strategies should specifically address disability accessibility and functional needs and pediatric capabilities except where infants and children are not a specific concern, such as interoperable communications (which may be a concern for workers with hearing and vision disabilities). The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) program is administered by the HHS Office of the Surgeon General. MRC units are organized locally to meet the health and safety needs of their community. MRC members are identified, credentialed, trained, and prepared in advance of an emergency, and may be utilized throughout the year to improve the health and medical response system. MMRS jurisdictions are encouraged to actively collaborate with MRC unit representatives. MMRS funds may be used to support local MRC units if endorsed by the local MMRS Steering Committee. Local MRC units must submit proposals to the MMRS Steering Committee outlining the amount of funds requested, the purpose of the funds, and the specific goals that will be addressed by the MRC unit as outlined in the proposal. The MMRS Steering Committee shall ensure that the proposed MRC activities will support and complement the objectives of the MMRS program prior to approval of the MRC funds request. The following are examples of the types of allowable expenses that MMRS jurisdictions may consider when supporting/establishing MRC units: (1) Implementing mechanisms to assure appropriate integration and coordination with existing local emergency response and health assets and capabilities (including provision of legal protections for volunteers); (2) Developing plans to organize and mobilize the MRC unit in response not only to urgent needs, but also to address other public health needs in the community; (3) Implementing activities to address the needs of children and individuals with disabilities or access and functional needs; (4) Recruiting volunteers for the MRC unit including volunteers with subject matter expertise in assessing the acute medical and non-acute health, safety and maintenance of independence needs of survivors with disabilities to determine and provide appropriate assistance in the most integrated setting appropriate; (5) Tracking volunteer information; (6) Screening and verifying credentials; (7) Training; (8) Providing age-appropriate equipment and supplies for the MRC unit.