Excelsior U.S. History Unit 6 (Ch. 18)

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United Nations (UN)
The peacekeeping body created in 1945 by delegates from 50 nations and used by the US and Soviet Union to spread their influence.
Satellite Nation
The name given to countries dominated by the Soviet Union.
Containment
The foreign policy by which America took measures to prevent the extension of communist rule to other countries. The biggest step was the implementation of the Truman Doctrine.
Iron Curtain
The phrase that came to stand for the division in Europe between countries under Soviet rule and those who were not.
Cold War
A conflict between the US and the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield, but would dominate global affairs from 1945 until the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Truman Doctrine
A foreign policy which stated that it was the responsibility of the US to support free people who were resisting outside pressures, especially communism. As a direct result, $400 million was sent to Turkey and Greece.
Marshall Plan
This plan was to aid all of Western Europe in their reconstruction efforts. As a direct result, $13 billion was sent to help Western Europe flourish.
Berlin Blockade
Western countries were trying to reunite all of Germany, and the Soviet Union responded by putting up a blockade around West Berlin. As a result of the blockade, over 2 million people in that part of the city had no access to essentials like food and fuel.
Berlin airlift
As a result of the Berlin Blockade, starting in June 1848, for 327 days, American and British planes flew every few minutes over the area and dropped off food and supplies until the blockade was lifted. Because Berlin was located in the middle of East Germany, the food and other essentials had to be brought in by airplane.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The group of 15 countries who joined together to pledge military support to one another in case any other member was attacked.
Chiang Kai-shek
The leader of the Nationalist government in China. They ruled the southern and eastern regions of China in the mid-1940s. The Nationalists were defeated in China by the Communists even though the US sent over two billion dollars to help the Nationalist fight against Communism.
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Communist government in China.
Taiwan
The island of the coast of China where the defeated Nationalists fled.
38th parallel
The line of latitude which separated North and South Korea- communist and democratic respectively. This was the line drawn when the armistice to end the Korean War was signed. This area is still around and known as the DMZ or Demilitarized Zone.
Korean War
When communist North Korea attacked and invaded democratic South Korea. South Korea was winning the war until Communist China entered the war to help North Korea.
Douglas MacArthur
The general in command of the U.S. forces in Korea during the Korean War.
HUAC
The House Un-American Activities Committee was created to investigate possible Communist influences, particularly in the entertainment industry. This is where the Hollywood Ten were discovered.
Hollywood Ten
The witnesses called by HUAC to answer questions who refused to testify and were sent to prison for it.
Blacklist
A list of people who were condemned for having a Communist background who could no longer find work because they were on the list.
Alger Hiss
A state department official who was accused of spying for the Soviet Union.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Activists in the American Communist Party convicted of espionage (spying) and executed for helping the Soviet Union achieve the Atomic bomb sooner than expected.
Joseph McCarthy
The Senator who championed anti-Communist activity in the 1950's. Eventually, after a long time and significant political and social power, the Senate condemned him and his policies and actions.
McCarthyism
The name given to attacking suspected Communists with one unsupported claim after another.
H-bomb
A hydrogen bomb with a force of 1 million tons of TNT. America and the Soviet Union raced to see which country could create it first. The race intensified when the USSR achieved explosion of an atomic bomb earlier than expected because Ethel and Julius Rosenberg helped them.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
President of the United States when the H- bomb was first created.
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of State and very anti-Communist, he believed that the best way to prevent the spread of Communism was to be willing to use nuclear weapons.
Brinkmanship
Under President Eisenhower, America's willingness to go to the edge of all-out war, including dependence on nuclear weapons.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The agency formed to use spies to carry out covert operations abroad to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the US.
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance between the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European satellite countries.
Eisenhower Doctrine
The warning issued by President Eisenhower saying that the US would defend the Middle East against an attack by any communist country. This was enacted as a result of the fear the U.S. felt about a military action by the Soviets.
Nikita Khrushchev
The leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin died who believed that Communism could triumph peacefully.
Francis Gary Powers
A pilot for the U-2 spy planes which flew covert missions over the Soviet Union and was shot down and captured. He was imprisoned in the Soviet Union for over ten years.
U-2 incident
When US pilot, Francis Gary Powers U-2 spy flight was shot down over the Soviet Union, President Eisenhower admitted to the covert action but refused to apologize and peace talks were abandoned between Eisenhower and Khrushchev, and President Eisenhower was no longer welcome in the Soviet Union.
Capitalism
An economic system based on private property and free enterprise.

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