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What were the crusades? (Probably on test)
A series of religious wars designed to recapture the holy land, Palestine, from the Islamic empire taking place roughly from 1100's-1200's
Who gained control of Palestine before the first crusade occurred?
the Seljuq Turks
After the Seljuq Turks tried to attack Constantinople in the first Crusade, who asks for help?
Who holds a meeting of lords and church leaders to stop fighting among themselves and start the first Crusade?
Pope Urban II
Why was Pope Urban II likely to help Alexio I?
Because Christians in Palestine complained about Turks
What Latin word means marked with a cross and was the reason for the Crusaders name?
What did the red cross signify for the Crusaders?
it was a holy mission and they were soldiers of god
What was the First Crusade mostly made up of?
Italian and French lords
What two things hurt the First Crusade?
They wore heavy clothing and didn't bring enough food and water
Why was the First Crusade successful?
The Turks were fighting amongst themselves
Where did the First Crusade get supplies from?
Ships from Italy would bring supplies
What did the First Crusade gain and who did they slaughter?
They regained Jerusalem and slaughtered many Muslims and Jews
Where do trade routes develop after the First Crusade?
Between Europe and the Holy Land
What starts the Second Crusade?
The Turks slowly conquered Edessa
Which three leaders did the Second Crusade involve?
King Louis VII, Pope, and King Conrad III
Which crusade was the only successful one?
Where do King Louis VII and Conrad III join forces and attack in the second crusade?
Who has control of the Holy Land at the start of the Third Crusade?
Muslim leader Saladin
Which three Europeans try to regain Jerusalem during the Third Crusade?
Frederick Barbarossa, King Philip II, King Richard I
What was Frederick Barbarossa's nickname?
What happens to Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade?
He drowns in a river
What happens to King Philip II during the Third Crusade?
Leaves to seize English land in France
What happens to King Richard the Lionhearted during the Third Crusade?
Could not recapture Jerusalem but makes a treaty with Saladin
What did the treaty give the Crusaders?
Christians could enter Jerusalem and they gained some land on the coastal areas
Who organizes the Fourth Crusade?
Pope Innocent III
Where did the Venetians convince the Fourth Crusaders to attack?
What happens to the Fourth Crusaders after they attack Zadar?
They are excommunicated
What two cities do the Fourth Crusaders attack?
Zadar and Constantinople
How was the Fourth Crusade different than the others?
They never reached the Holy Land
At the end of the crusades, who controls Palestine?
What was the weapon of choice?
What three things did they learn about regarding warfare?
undermining walls, using catapults, and gunpowder
As a result of the Crusades who gained more power?
As organizer of some of the crusades who gains power?
Because the kings placed more taxes and had larger armies, what happened to Feudalism?
What became major trading centers?
What did the Crusades help?
Trade, government, cultural diffusion
About how long does the Holy Roman Empire last?
What is the holy land?
All of Palestine including Jerusalem
Where were the Turks originally from?
What events had already happened at the time of the first crusade?
Church had already split, Byzantine empire had lost Asia Minor, Battle of Hastings had occurred
When did the Muslims first control the Holy Land?
True or False: Only Judaism and Christianity believe in the Holy Land?
Why do Jews believe in the holy land?
It is where the Second temple was built and became the capital of the kingdom of Israel
Why do Christians believe in the holy land?
It is the birthplace of Christianity where Jesus was tried and executed; it is where Jesus is buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Why do Muslims believe in the holy land?
It is where the Dome of Rock is, where Muhammad went to Jerusalem, ascended into heaven, talked to god, and came back down
What was Pope Urban's motive for the first crusade?
The church might get back together again
What was the nobles' motive for the first crusade?
To get land and to receive admittance to heaven
What were the serfs' motives for the first crusade?
To get off the manor and have an adventure; to receive admittance to heaven
What were the knights' motives for the first crusade?
They had been training all their lives and wanted to show off their skills and fight
Where did the armies meet up for the first crusade?
What were the results of the first crusade?
Feudalism was brought to the land they captured; religious customs were brought to captured lands; adapted ideas of the Muslims; developed trade
What were the four city-states established at the end of the first crusade?
Tripoli, Antioch, Edessa, Jerusalem
What were the motives for the merchants for the first crusade?
Provided business opportunities
Why do King Louis VII and King Conrad III join together?
They are united by the Pope
What was the major event of the Second Crusade?
King Conrad's loss at Asia Minor
What was the nickname for the third crusade?
Crusade of 3 kings
What years was the third crusade?
What years was the second crusade?
What years was the first crusade?
What years was the fourth crusade?
Who unites Frederick Barbarossa, King Phillip I, and King Richard of England?
Pope Gregory VII
True or False: Saladin was not a Seljuq Turk
What was the motive for the third crusade?
What was the motive for the second crusade?
At what battle do Richard and Phillip join forces and are successful in winning?
Battle at Acres
What happens when King Richard goes to Jerusalem?
Horrific battle where a truce is eventually called
Who is king in England at time of Fourth Crusade?
King John I
Who is against who in the fourth crusade?
French knights against Saladin's successors
Why did the Pope not ask the kings for help in the fourth crusade?
They don't like him (John is excommunicated, Philip Augustus is excommunicated, etc.)
Why did the Pope think the French knights could succeed in the Fourth Crusade?
They had a new tactic which was not going through Turkey and instead going south through Egypt
Why did the French knights attack Zadar?
To get ships from Venetians (Zadar was their enemy in trade)
Why did the French knights attack Constantinople?
The king who was taken off of his throne wanted back his power, so he convinced them to help him.
Why did the Pope lift the excommunication from the French knights?
He still needed them
What was the motive for the Fourth Crusade?
To get back the Holy Land