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What were the crusades? (Probably on test)
A series of religious wars designed to recapture the holy land, Palestine, from the Islamic empire taking place roughly from 1100's-1200's
After the Seljuq Turks tried to attack Constantinople in the first Crusade, who asks for help?
Who holds a meeting of lords and church leaders to stop fighting among themselves and start the first Crusade?
Pope Urban II
Why was Pope Urban II likely to help Alexio I?
Because Christians in Palestine complained about Turks
What did the red cross signify for the Crusaders?
it was a holy mission and they were soldiers of god
What two things hurt the First Crusade?
They wore heavy clothing and didn't bring enough food and water
What did the First Crusade gain and who did they slaughter?
They regained Jerusalem and slaughtered many Muslims and Jews
Where do King Louis VII and Conrad III join forces and attack in the second crusade?
Which three Europeans try to regain Jerusalem during the Third Crusade?
Frederick Barbarossa, King Philip II, King Richard I
What happens to King Richard the Lionhearted during the Third Crusade?
Could not recapture Jerusalem but makes a treaty with Saladin
What did the treaty give the Crusaders?
Christians could enter Jerusalem and they gained some land on the coastal areas
What three things did they learn about regarding warfare?
undermining walls, using catapults, and gunpowder
What events had already happened at the time of the first crusade?
Church had already split, Byzantine empire had lost Asia Minor, Battle of Hastings had occurred
Why do Jews believe in the holy land?
It is where the Second temple was built and became the capital of the kingdom of Israel
Why do Christians believe in the holy land?
It is the birthplace of Christianity where Jesus was tried and executed; it is where Jesus is buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Why do Muslims believe in the holy land?
It is where the Dome of Rock is, where Muhammad went to Jerusalem, ascended into heaven, talked to god, and came back down
What were the serfs' motives for the first crusade?
To get off the manor and have an adventure; to receive admittance to heaven
What were the knights' motives for the first crusade?
They had been training all their lives and wanted to show off their skills and fight
What were the results of the first crusade?
Feudalism was brought to the land they captured; religious customs were brought to captured lands; adapted ideas of the Muslims; developed trade
What were the four city-states established at the end of the first crusade?
Tripoli, Antioch, Edessa, Jerusalem
What happens when King Richard goes to Jerusalem?
Horrific battle where a truce is eventually called
Why did the Pope not ask the kings for help in the fourth crusade?
They don't like him (John is excommunicated, Philip Augustus is excommunicated, etc.)
Why did the Pope think the French knights could succeed in the Fourth Crusade?
They had a new tactic which was not going through Turkey and instead going south through Egypt
Why did the French knights attack Zadar?
To get ships from Venetians (Zadar was their enemy in trade)
Why did the French knights attack Constantinople?
The king who was taken off of his throne wanted back his power, so he convinced them to help him.
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