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Anatomy II Endocrine PPT 2
Terms in this set (63)
The anterior pituitary gland is _______ and releases the hormones ______
glandular, GH, PRL, ACTH, FSH, TSH, LH
The posterior pituitary gland is ______ and releases the hormones _______ and _______
neural, oxytocin, antidiuretic
How many hormones of the anterior pituitary gland are there, how many are trophins,
Which hormone stimulates the the thyroid gland to release T3 and T4?
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
what is a tropin?
a hormone that regulates the secretory action of another endocrine organ
How does thyroid hormone affect homeostasis?
T3 and T4 defend metabolism by defending blood glucose levels
What does ADH prevent?
urine formation, conserves water
Which two anterior pituitary gland hormones are not tropic?
growth hormone (GH) and prolactin
What is the only hormone that doesn't use a second messenger to activate cAMP?
The hypothalamus communicates with the posterior pituitary gland through _____
The hypothalamus communicates with the anterior pituitary gland through ______
What are the 6 anterior pituitary gland hormones?
TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, GH, PRL
What part of the hypothalamus makes ADH, where is it sent, and how does it get there?
supraoptic nuclei, posterior pituitary gland, inferior hypophyseal artery
What part of the hypothalamus makes oxytocin, where is it sent, and how does it get there?
paraventricular nuclei, posterior pituitary gland, inferior hypophyseal artery
What releases ADH and what is the target tissue of ADH?
posterior pituitary gland, kidneys
How does ADH conserve water and what pathway does it use?
inserts aquaporins that pull the water out of the urine before it leaves the body, PIP2 pathway
Alcohol's affect on ADH is ________, therefore alcohol is classified as a _______
Too much ADH, or ADH hypersecretion, results in _______
Too little ADH, or ADH hyposecretion results in ________
excessive urination, excessive thirst
If we experience heavy blood loss, ADH is sent out to _______
increase blood pressure and conserve blood
What is the purpose of Oxytocin, how does it work, and what pathway does it use?
uterine contractions, milk ejection, works by increasing the Ca2+ levels ICF, uses PIP2 Ca2+ pathway
The uterine wall is made of _______ muscle because it is more powerful
Which two anterior pituitary gland hormones have a direct effect on target tissues, and which doesn't use cAMP as 2nd messenger?
GH, PRL, growth hormone doesn't use cAMP as 2nd messenger
Which communication network is slower...hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland or hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland, and why?
hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland, glandular
What is the target tissue of GH and when does this usually occur?
skeletal muscle, bones, puberty
What type of cell produces GH?
What is needed for GH to promote protein synthesis?
Insulin Like Growth Factors
What affect does GH have on fat metabolism, glycogen breakdown, and glucose uptake by active skeletal muscles?
increases, increases, inhibits
Does GH mobilize or inhibit fat
Hypersecretion of GH in children results in
gigantism (open growth plates)
Hypersecretion of GH in adults results in
acromegaly (closed growth plates) enlarged jaw, nose, hands, feet, heart problems
Hyposecretion of GH in children results in
What is the effect when T3 and T4 are released?
blood glucose levels are defended
When is TSH greatest in quantity?
What does thyroxine (t4) do?
increases the binding affinity by allowing the substrates to fit well into the receptors
What 3 factors effect how effective hormones are?
1. how much of hormone there is
2. how fast the hormone can be cleared out when used up
3. binding affinity of hormone and receptor
When blood glucose levels must be defended, which 2 hormones will be released?
When T3 and T4 levels drop, the _______ releases TRH, sends this signal to the _______, which then releases TSH,
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland
TSH is responsible for ________ of the thyroid gland
normal activity (releasing T3 and T4)
The thyroid gland is made of two types of cells. What are these?
follicular cells (produce thyrosines), parafollicular cells (produce calcitonin)
Slide 30 on making T3 and T4 in PPT B
What hormone is responsible for the binding affinity of all other hormones?
What does Thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) increase?
BMR, fat breakdown, glucose breakdown, protein synthesis
What is the function of albumin? What are TBG's for?
a plasma protein carrier that shuttles T3 and T4 to target tissues, TBG's shuttleT3
Thyroid Hormone (T3 and T4) has what effect on growth?
need T3 and T4 to grow and mature normally, to have normally functioning CNS, PNS, and ANS
Name some other body systems T3 and T4 affect?
digestive, reproductive, integumentary, muscular, skeletal, nervous
A goiter results from a deficiency in what?
iodine, thus can't make T3 and T4
Cretinism results from a deficiency in what?
iodine, thus can't make T3 and T4
How are cretinism and goiters related?
both result from a deficiency in iodine, thus can't make t3 and t4
Myxedema results from a deficiency in what? What are the symptoms
T3 and T4, fatigue, dry skin, low BMR
Diseases of Hypothyroidism include what?
myexedema, goiters, cretinism
What is Graves Disease? What are the symptoms?
too much T3 and T4 is released, protruding eyes, feel like your on speed, heart pound, always in fight or flight
When is calcitonin released?
when Ca2+ levels are too high
What are the effects of calcitonin release?
inhibits osteoclast activity to save bones, stimulates Ca2+ uptake by bones,
Calcitonin is an antagonist to what other hormone?
Parathyroid hormone is released when Ca2+ levels are too ______
What cells secrete parathyroid hormone?
What vitamin does parathyroid hormone activate?
The posterior pituitary gland hormones are what, and what pathway do they use?
oxytocin, adh, pip2 calcium pathway
The anterior pituitary gland hormones are what, and what pathway do they use?
tsh, fh, lh, prolactin, gh, acth, cAMP pathway
Insulin Like Growth Factors affect which hormone and how?
gh, need for protein synthesis
Parafollicular cells are responsible for
Follicular cells are responsible for
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