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111 terms

A&P - Chapter 18: The Circulatory System - Blood

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Circulatory System
System consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
Cardiovascular System
System that refers to the heart and blood vessels
Hematology
Study of Blood
Respiration, Transport, Protection, Regulation
4 Functions of the Circulatory System
Fluid Balance, pH of ECF, Temperature
3 Things the Circulatory System Regulates
Plasma
The clear extracellular fluid of blood
Hematocrit
Packed cell volume; Percentage of whole blood volume composed of red blood cells
Erythrocytes, Platelets, Leukocytes
3 Formed Elements of Blood
Granulocytes, Agranulocytes
2 Categories of Leukocytes
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
3 Types of Granulocytes
Lymphocytes, Monocytes
2 Types of Agranulocytes
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes
5 Types of Leukocytes
Viscosity
Resistance to flow
Osmolarity
Total molarity of dissolved particles; Depends on sodium ions, protein, and RBCs
High Osmolarity
Causes fluid absorption into blood, raises BP
Low Osmolarity
Causes fluid to remain in tissues, may result in edema
Serum
Remaining fluid when blood clots and the solids are removed
Fibrinogen
The factor that is missing in serum, but present in plasma
Albumins
Smallest and most abundant plasma proteins; Contributes to viscosity and osmolarity, influences blood pressure, flow and fluid balance
Globulins (Antibodies)
Plasma proteins that provide immune system functions (alpha, beta, and gamma subclasses)
Fibrinogen
Precursor of fibrin threads that help form blood clots
Albumins, Globulins (Antibodies), Fibrinogen
3 Major Categories of Plasma Proteins for Clotting, Defense, and Transport of Solutes
Nitrogenous Compounds, Nutrients, Gases, Electrolytes
4 Nonprotein Components of Plasma
Urea
Most common waste product of plasma
Sodium
Makes of 90% of plasma cationds
Electrolytes
Nonprotein component of plasma that is a major influence on blood volume and pressure
Hemopoiesis
The production of blood, especially its formed elements
Red Bone Marrow
Produces all seven formed elements of blood
Pluripotent Stem Cells (PPSC)
Can multiply continually and are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines; Formerly called hemocytoblasts or hemopoietic stem cells
Colony Forming Units
Specialized stem cells only producing one class of formed element of blood
Myeloid Hemopoiesis
Blood formation in the bone marrow
Lymphoid Hemopoiesis
Blood formation in the lymphatic organs; Widely distributed in lymphoid tissues (thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen, and peyers patches in intestines) and produces lymphocytes
Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
Blood Type
Determined by antigens
Erythrocytes
Principle functions are the carry oxygen from lungs to cell tissues and pick up carbon dioxide from tissues and bring back to lungs
Erythrocytes
Carry out anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP (indefinitely) so as not to use oxygen needed for tissues
Hemoglobin
Consists of four protein chains (globins) and four heme groups
Four
Number of oxygens each hemoglobin molecule can carry
Gamma
Chains present in fetal hemoglobin that allow extraction of oxygen from the mother's blood stream
45%
Average hematocrit
Erythropoiesis
Production of red blood cells
120 Days
Average lifespan of an erythrocyte
Negative
Feedback control associated with erythrocytes
Hypoxemia, High Altitude, Exercise Increase, Hemorrhaging
4 Stimuli for Increasing Erythropoiesis
Iron
Key nutritional requirement for Erythropoiesis
Iron, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Vitamin C, Copper
5 Nutritional Needs for Erythropoiesis
Spleen
The "Erythrocyte Graveyard"
Antigens
Proteins, Glycoproteins,Glycolipids; Complex molecules on surface of cell membrane that are unique to the individual; Used to distinguish self from foreign matter
Antigens, Antibodies
Interactions between these two things are what blood types are based on
Agglutinogens
Antigens on the surface of the red blood cell that is the basis for blood typing
Antibodies
Proteins (gamma globulins) secreted by plasma cells; part of immune response to foreign matter; bind to antigens and mark them for destruction; forms antigen-antibody complexes
Agglutinins
Antibodies in the plasma that bring about transfusion mismatch
Agglutination
Antibody molecule binding to antigens and stick them together; Causes clumping of red blood cells; Responsible for mismatched transfusion reaction
Antigens
Presence determines name of blood type (Example: Blood Type A person has A ___ )
Anti-A, Anti-B
2 Types of Agglutinins
Type O
Universal Donor Blood Type
Type AB
Universal Recipient Blood Type
Rh Factor
Denotes that the blood has the D antigen on RBCs
Water, Proteins, Enzymes, Nutrients, Wastes, Hormones, Gases
7 Components of Plasma
Leukocytes
Least abundant formed element; protect against infectious microorganisms and other pathogens
Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
Granulocytes
Leukocytes with specific granules that contain enzymes and other chemicals employed in defense against pathogens
Neutrophils
Granulocytes with a 3-5 lobed nucleus
Eosinophils
Rosy-orange granulocytes with a bilobed nucleus
Basophils
Least common leukocyte; Granulocyte with large, abundant, violet granules and an S-shaped nucleus
Lymphocytes
Agranulocyte with a uniform dark violet nucleus in bluish cytoplasm (that can be scanty to abundant)
Monocytes
Largest leukocyte; Agranulocyte with a horseshoe shaped nucleus
N - L - M - E - B
Leukocytes in order of Most Abundant to Least Abundant (use first letter, with - between)
Neutrophils
Leukocytes with increased numbers in bacterial infections
Eosinophils
Leukocytes with increased numbers in parasitic infections and allergies
Basophils
Leukocytes with increased numbers in chicken pox, sinusitis, and diabetes
Histamine
Secreted by basophils and speeds flow of blood to an injured area (vasodilator)
Heparin
Secreted by basophils and promotes mobility of other WBCs in the area; prevents clotting (anticoagulant)
Lymphocytes
Leukocytes with increased numbers in diverse infections and immune responses
Monocytes
Leukocytes with increased numbers in viral infections and inflammation
Macrophages
Formed by monocytes when they leave the bloodstream
Leukopoiesis
Production of white blood cells
Myeloblasts, Monoblasts, Lymphoblasts
3 Types of Pluripotent Stem Cells (PPSCs)
Myeloblasts
PPSCs that form neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils (granulocytes)
Monoblasts
PPSCs that form monocytes
Lymphoblasts
PPSCs that give rise to all forms of lymphocytes
Platelets
Small fragments of megakaryocyte cells
True
Platelets are not ___ cells
Pseudopods
Provide platelets with amoeboid movement and phagocytosis
Platelets
Function in reducing blood loss, forming plugs to seal small breaks, secreting clotting factors, initiating formation of clot-dissolving enyme, phagocytizing and destroying bacteria, and secreting growth factors to repair blood vessels
Thrombopoiesis
Production of platelets
Megakaryoblasts
Form megakaryocytes
Megakaryocytes
Live in bone marrow adjacent to blood sinusoids; gigantic cell with a multilobed nucleus
Proplatelets
Long tendrils of cytoplasm that protrude from the megakaryocytes into the blood sinusoids
Hemostasis
The cessation of bleeding
Vascular Spasm, Platelet Plug Formation, Coagulation
3 Hemostatic Mechanisms
Vascular Spasm
Prompt constriction of a broken vessel; First step of hemostasis
Platelet Plug Formation
Second step of hemostasis; Platelet pseudopods stick to damaged vessel and other platelets, platelets degranulate
Positive
Feedback cycle associated with platelet plug formation
Coagulation
Last and most effective defense against bleeding; need to be quick but accurate
Fibrin
Goal of coagulation is to convert plasma protein fibrinogen into insoluble ___ threads to form framework of clo
Procoagulants
Clotting factors
Calcium
Required for both extrinsic and intrinsic pathway
Extrinsic Pathway
Factors released by damaged tissue begin cascade; Damaged vessels and parivascular tissue
Intrinsic Pathway
Factors found only in blood begin cascade; Platelet degranulation
Positive
Type of feedback involved when thrombin speeds up formation of prothombin activator
Factor X - Prothrombin Activator - Prothrombin - Thrombin - Fibrinogen - Fibrin
6 Steps of Completion of Coagulation (In Order)
Thrombin
Converts fibrinogen into fibrin
30
Minutes it takes for clot retraction
Fibrinolysis
Dissolution of a clot
Plasmin
A fibrin-dissolving enzyme that breaks up the clot; "the clot buster"
Plasminogen
Converted into plasmin by kallikrein
Prostacyclin
Platelet repellant that coats the endothelium of blood vessels
Heparin
Natural anticoagulant that interferes with formation of prothrombin activator (from basophils and mast cells)
Antithrombin
Natural anticoagulant that deactivates thrombin before it can act on fibrinogen (from liver)
Glucose, Protein
2 Most Common Nutrients in Blood Plasma