24 terms

Reproduction & Genetics Vocabulary

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Heredity
when genes that determine traits/DNA are passed from one generation to the other
Trait
A specific version of a characteristic that varies from one individual to another.
Fertilization
The process in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a zygote
Gene
A specific sequence of DNA that determines one or more traits.
Alleles
Different forms of a gene
Dominant Allele
The genetic condition in which one copy of a version of a gene (an allele) in an individual gives rise to an observed trait. An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the Allele is present
Recessive Allele
The genetic condition in which a trait is not observed in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual. An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Hybrid
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is Heterozygous for that particular trait
Probability
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
Punnett Square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype
An organism's physical appearance or visible traits
Genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a trait
Codominance
A condition in which two traits have equal dominance and, as a result, both traits can be observed distinctly in a heterozygous individual.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; a long double-helical molecule, present in chromosomes, that contains the genes
cell division
The process by which a parent cell splits to form two daughter cells in order for an organism to grow and replace injured and worn out cells or to reproduce via asexual reproduction.
sperm cell
Cell produced by a male that contains half of the chromosomes of body cells. A male sex cell
egg cell (ovum)
A cell produced by a female that contains half of the number of chromosomes present in other body cells. A female reproductive cell.
Testes
an organ that produces sperm in males.
Ovaries
a female reproductive organ in which ova or eggs are produced.
gender identity
the individual's sense of being male or female
sexual orientation
a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person
gender expression
the way in which a person expresses their gender identity, typically through their appearance, dress, and behavior.