Cell Structure and Function
Imperative Body Function
Although enegery is not made in mitochondria, they are known as the "power plants: of the cell because they:
extract energy from organic compounds.
Although the basic structure of the cell plasma membrane is formed by a lipid bilayer, most of the specific membrane functions are carried out by:
bound and transmembrane proteins.
To effectively relay signals, cell to cell communication utilizes chemical messenger systems that:
release secretions into extracellular fluid.
Aerobic metabolism, also know as oxidative metabolism, provides energy by:
combining hydrogen and oxygen to form water.
Epithelial tissues are classified according to the shape of the cells and the number of layers. Which of the following is correctly matched description and type of epithelial tissue?
Glandular epithelium: arise from surface epithelia and underlying connective tissue.
connective tissue contains fibroblasts that are responsible for:
synthesis of collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers.
Which of the following aspects for the function of the nucleus is performed by ribosomal RNA?
Providing the site where protein synthesis occurs.
Breakdown and removal of foreign substances and worn out cell parts are performed by which of the following organelles?
Which of the following membrane transport mechanisms requires the greatest amount of energy?
Ischemia and other toxic injuries increase the accumulation of intracellular calcium as a result of:
release of stored calcium from the mitochondria.
The patient is found to have liver disease, resulting in the removal of a lobe of his liver. Adaptation to the reduced size of the liver leads to ____ of the remaining liver cells?
A person eating peanuts starts choking and collapses. His airway obstruction is partially cleared, but he remains hypoxic until he reaches the hospital. The prolonged cell hypoxia caused a cerebral infarction and resulting ___ in the brain.
Injured cells have impaired flow of substances through the cell membrane as a result of;
A diabetic patient has impaired sensation, circulation, and oxygenation of his feet. He steps on a piece of glass, the wound does not heal, and the area tissue becomes necrotic. The necrotic cell death is characterized by;
An 89 yo female patient has experienced significant decreases in her mobility and stamina during a three week hospital stay for the treatment of a femoral head fracture. Which of the following phenomena most likely accounts for the patient's decrease in muscle function that underlies her reduced mobility?
Disuse atrophy of muscle cells during a prolonged period of immobility.
A 20 yo college student has presented to her campus medical clinic for a scheduled Pap smear. The clinician who will interpret the smear will examine cell samples for evidence of:
changes in cell shape, size, and organization
Despite the low levels of radiation used in contemporary radiologic imaging, a radiology tech is aware of the need to minimize her exposure to ionizing radiation. What is the primary rationale for the tech's precautions?
radiation interferes with dan synthesis and mitosis
a 70 yo male patient has been admitted to a hospital for the treatment of a recent hemorrhagic stroke that has left him with numerous motor and sensory deficits. These deficits are most likely the result of which of the following mechanisms of cell injury?
Hypoxia and ATP depletion
A patient with severe peripheral vascular disease has developed signs of dry gangrene on the great toe of one foot. Which of the following pathphysiologic processes most likely contributed to this diagnosis?
impaired arterial blood supply
Which of the following facts underlies the concept of replicative senescence?
Telomeres become progressively shorter in successive generations of a cell
The vascular, hemodynamic stage of acute inflammation is initiated by momentary vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation that causes localized:
The cellular state of acute inflammation is marked by the movement of leukocytes into the area. Which of the following cells arrives early in great numbers?
The phagocytosis process involves three distance steps. What is the initial step in the process?
recognition and adherence
Which of the following mediators of inflammation causes increased capillary permeability and pain?
The acute phase systemic response usually begins within hours of the onset of inflammation and includes:
fever and lethargy
In contrast to acute inflammation, chronic inflammation is characterized by which of the following phenomena?
Lymphocytosis and activated macrophages
Exogenous pyrogens and the presence of bacteria in the blood lead to the release of endogenous pyrogens that:
produce leukocytosis and anorexia
An older adult patient has just sheared the skin on her elbow while attempted to boost herself up in bed, an event that has percipitated acute inflammation in the region surrounding the wound. Which of the following events will occur during the vascular stage of the patient's inflammation?
outpouring of exudate into interstitial spaces
A post surgical patient who is recovering in the postanesthetic recovery unit states that she is "freezing cold" Which of the following measuers is likely to be initiated in the hypothalamus in an effort to reduce heat loss?
contraction of the pilomotor muscles
Patients are commonly administered antipyretics when their oral temp exceeds 37.5 (99.5). Which of the following statements related to the rationale for this action is most accurate?
There is little empirical evidence for theis treatment modality
A patient has sought care of recent malaise and high fever. Upon assessment, the patient states that his current fever began two days earlier, although he state that for the last 2 weeks he is in a cycle of high fever for a couple of days followed by a day or two of normal temp. Which fever pattern is this patient experiencing?
An 84 yo patient's blood cultures have come back positive, despite the fact that his oral temp has remained within normal range. Which phenomena underlies the alterations in fever responses that occur in the elderly?
disturbance in the function ing of the thermoregulatory center
Epithelialization, the first component of the proliferative phase of wound healing, is delayed in open wounds until after___ has formed.
A patient has experienced a myocardial infarction with accompanying necrosis of cardiac muscle, a permanent tissue. What are the ramifications of the fact that cardiac muscle is a permanent tissue?
The cells will not proliferate and will be replaced with scar tissue.
A couple have chosen to pay for the harvesting and storage of umbilical cord blood after the delivery of their child to secure a future source of embryonic stem cells. What is the most likely rationale for the couple's decision?
The stem cells may be able to produce a wide range of body cells.
A nursing student is cleaning and changing the dressing on a patient's sacral ulcer. The student has vigorously cleansed the wound bed to remove all traces of beefy, red tissue that existed in the wound bed. The student has most likely removed:
Which of the following wounds is most likely to heal by secondary intention?
A boy's "road rash" that he got by falling off his bicycle
Which of the following surgical patients is most likely to experience enhanced wound healing as a result of his or her diet?
a patient who eats a high calorie diet and large amounts of red meat
Which of the following is most likely to experience impaired wound healing?
A patient with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and a history of poor blood sugar control
Triplet codes of three bases are the genetic codes used in transmitting genetic information necessary for:
Splicing of mRNA during processing permits a cell to
form different proteins
Multifacotrial inheritance is similar to polygenic inheritance because both involve:
multiple alleles at different loci
During the transcription process, RNA
polymerase attaches to DNA
Which of the following statements is true of genetic mutations?
Mutations may result from extrinsic factors or from spontaneous error
Which of the following statements is true of messenger RNA?
mRNA provides the template for protein synthesis
A dominant genetic trait:
is expressed in either a homozygous or heretozygous pairing.
Although the majority of cellular DNA exists in the cell nucleus, part of the cell DNA is located in the:
Genetic disorders that involve a single gene trait are characterized by:
Mendelian patterns of transmission
In addition to having a 50% chance of inheriting an autosomal dominant disorder from an affected parent, such a disorder is characterized by:
varied gene penetration and expression
The newborn has the distinctive physical features of trisomy 21, Down syndrome, which includes:
upward slanting of eyes
A teratogenic environmental agent can cause birth defects when:
retained during early pregnancy
Fetal alcohol syndrome is unlike other teratogens in that the harmful effects on the fetus:
extend throughout the pregnancy
Prenatal diagnosis methods include the use of ultrasonography from identifying ____ abnormalities
Which of the following practitioners is most likely to be of assistance in the early care of an infant with a cleft lip?
A woman who has just learned that she is pregnant for the first time has sought advice from her healthcare provider about the safe use of alcohol during pregnancy. What advice should the clinician provide to the woman?
"It's likely best to eliminate alcohol from your diet while you're pregnant"
Unlike the tissue growth that occurs with hypertrophy and hyperplasia, the growth of a malignancy is:
In contrast to malignancies, benign tumors are characterized by
a fibrous capsule
Because of their rapid growth, malignant tumors affect area tissues by:
liberating enzymes and toxins
The angiogenesis process, which allows tumors to develop new blood vessels, is triggered and regulated by tumor-secreted:
Cancerous transformation of a cell requires the activation of:
Although clinical manifestations vary with the type of cancer and organs involved, abnormal tumor growth causes general manifestations that include:
Although both grading and staging are methods for classifying cancer and selecting a treatment plan, staging is used to determine the:
extent of disease spread
Early diagnosis of childhood cancers is often difficult because the signs and symptoms are:
similar to those of other childhood diseases
A lung biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging have confirmed the presence of a benign lung tumor in a patient. Which of the following characteristics are associated with this patient's neoplasm?
The tumor will grow by expansion and is likely encapsulated.
Genetic screening may be indicated for individuals who have a family history of which of the following neoplasms?
Which of the following dietary guidelines should a nurse provide to a group of older adults to possibly decrease their risks of developing colon cancer?
"Try to minimize fat and maximize fiber when you're planning your meals"
A 5-year-old girl's diagnosis of bone cancer required an aggressive treatment regimen. Which of the following considerations forms the most significant threat to her future health?
Unwanted effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy
An injured patient develops interstitial edema as a result of decreased:
collodial osmotic pressure
The most reliable method of measuring body water or fluid volume increase is by assessing:
body weight change
The syndrome of inappropriate ADH is characterized by
One of the major causes of hyperkalemia is __________, which alters potassium elimination
Hypoparathyroidism causes hypocalemia by
blocking bone release of calcium
A patient has acidosis thta is suspected to be respiratory in etiology. Which of the following is the major cause of acute primary respiratory acidosis?
Impaired alveloar ventilation
As other mechanisms prepare to respond to a pH imbalance, immediate buffering is a result of increased
bicarbonate/carbonic acid regulation
A patient with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis secondary to alcohol use has a distended abdomen as a result of fluid accumulation in his peritoneal cavity (ascites). Which of the following pathophysiologic processes contributes to this third spacing?
Abnormal increase in transcellular fluid volume
A patient has been receiving intravenous normal saline at a rate of 125 mL per hour since her surgery 2 days earlier. As a result of her consequent increase in vascular volume, she has become edematous. Which of the following phenomena accounts for this patient's eden?
Increased capillary filtration pressure
A patient with a diagnosis of schizophrenia has been admitted to the emergency department after ingesting more than 2 gallons of water. Which of the following pathophysiologic processes may result from the sudden water gain?
Water movement from the extracelluar to intracelluar compartment
A female patient with a history of chronic renal failure has developed hypocalcemia. Which of the following assessment findings would provide potential confirmation of this diagnosis?
The patient has muscle spasms and complains of numbness around her mouth
Which of the following assessments should be prioritized in the care of a patient who is being treated for hypokalemia?
A 77-year-old woman has been brought to the emergency department by her daughter because of a sudden and unprecedented onset of confusion. The patient admits to ingesting large amounts of baking soda since the morning in an effort to treat indigestion. How will the the woman's body attempt to resolve this disruption in acid-base balance?
A nurse who is providing care for a patient with a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus should prioritize the close monitoring of serum levels of which of the following electrolytes?
Allostasis is characterized by
interactive physiologic changes in numerous systems
According to Hans Selye, the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is:
Although stress exposure initiates integrated responses by multiple systems, the functional changes are first manifested by which system?
Which manifestation of stress reflects the nonspecific "flight-or-fight" response?
Increased cardiopulmonary rates
Stress-induced cortisol hormone secretion is associated with
regulation of the stress response
The patient recently returned from a year of military battle duty and has posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This disorder includes an "intrusion" state that is experienced as
repeated relived memories as nightmares
A patient is experiencing significant stress while awaiting the results of her recent lymph node biopsy. Among the hormonal contributors to this response is a release of aldosterone, resulting in which of the following physiologic effects?
Increased sodium absorbtion
A college student has just learned that her latest Pap smear revealed atypical cells, a fact that has resulted in stress and an accompanying release of angiotensin II. How would the effects of this hormone be objectively demonstrated?
Increased blood pressure
The adipocytes in an adipose tissue not only serve as a storage site, they also
Natural appetite suppression mechanisms, necessary for food intake control, include
leptin receptor stimulation
A patient with upper body obesity also has central fat distribution. This body fat configuration places the patient at greater risk for ________ than a patient with lower body obesity
Protein-calorie malnutrition with loss of lean tissues and muscle mass results in
Which of the following patients is most likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?
A woman who has been admitted to the hospital in early labor
A frail, 87-year-old female patient has been admitted to a hospital after a fall and has been diagnosed with failure to thrive. Which of the following laboratory values would suggest that the patient may be experiencing malnutrition?
Cytokines that affect hematopoiesis in bone marrow are called colony stimulating factors (CSF's) based on their ability to:
regulate blood cells
Leukocytes consist of three categories of cells that have different roles in the inflammatory an immune responses. Which of the following leukocytes is correctly matched with its function?
Eosinophils; allergic reaction
The 16 year old boy has enlarged lymph nodes and a sore throat. His girlfriend was recently diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by ___ and commonly transmitted in ____.
Epstein Barr virus; saliva
The patient is diagnosed with Hodgkin type of lymphoma based on the result of laboratory tests and study of the tumor cells. A distinct characteristic of Hodgkin lymphoma is the presence of;
Leukemias are classified according to the predominant cell type. The myelogenous cell type of leukemia can:
interfere with thromobcyte cell maturation
Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of:
A patient with a long standing diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has recently developed neutropenia and been admitted to a hospital. Which of the following measures should be prioritized by the nurses who are providing his care?
Vigilant infection control and handwashing
A 16 year old girl has been brought to her primary health care provider by her mother due to the daughter's recent malaise and lethargy. Which of the following assessments should the clinician perform in an effort to confirm or rule out infectious mononucleosis?
Palpating the patient's lymph nodes.
Which of the following factors differentiates chronic leukemias from acute leukemias?
The leukemic cells are more fully differentiated than in acute leukemias
A patient has been diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a form of malignancy that most likely originated in which of the following sites?
Which of the following patient complaints should prompt a clinician to order a diagnostic work-up for multiple myeloma?
"Lately my bones just seem to ache so bad, and nothing seems to help."
With the exception of the first two steps, what is required in all steps of the clotting process?
The first step of hemostasis occurs as a:
To form a platelet plug, platelets are attracted to the damaged vessel, and the platelet ___ occurs.
Increased platelet function, and consequent hyper coagulability, can be caused by:
vascular wall damage
Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is a/an ___ disorder that destroys ___.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is characterized by:
a 69 year old patient who is obese and has a diagnosis of angina pectoris has been prescribed clopidogrel (Plavix) by his primary care provider. The patient's medication achieves its therapeutic effect in which of the following ways?
prevention of platelet aggregation
A patient was started on a protocol for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis shortly after admission, and has been receiving 5000 units of heparin twice daily for the last 5 days. An immune response to this treatment may increase the patient's chance of developing which health problem?
Which of the following patients likely faces the highest risk of an acquired hypocoagulation disorder vitamin K deficiency?
A patient who has a diagnosis of liver failure secondary to alcohol abuse
A healthy, primiparous (first time) mother delivered a healthy infant several hours ago, but the mother has experienced postpartum hemorrhage. Which of the following disorders is most likely to underlie the patient's excessive bleeding after delivery?
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Sue is fatigued and some blood tests are done. He results include Hct 40%, Hgb 8g/dL; WBC 8000, platelets 175,000. The nurse should interpret Sue's blood work as indicative of:
Manifestations of anemia that are directly due to the diminished oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin include:
The patient is an average sized adult and has abnormal microcytic hypochromic red blood cells due to a long-term, chronic disease. Which of the following CBC results is characteristic of her type of anemia?
Megaloblastic anemias caused by folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiencies can seriously affect RBC production. This is because both are necessary for ___ synthesis and ___.
DNA; red blood cell maturation
Polycythemia develops in patients with lung disease as a result of:
An elevated level of unconjugated bilirubin, due to hemolysis of RBC's, results in high level of iron released and:
Hemolytic anemia is characterized by excessive red blood cell destruction and compensatory:
a 48 year old patient, who normally enjoys good health, has bee admitted to the hospital for the treatment of polycythemia vera. The nurse who is providing care for the patient should prioritize assessments aimed at the early identification of which of the following health problems?
A 72 year old woman with complaints of increasing fatigue has completed a series of fecal occult blood tests that indicate the presence of blood in her stool. Which of the following health problems is likely to accompany this patinet's gastrointestinal bleed?
The pathologic effects of the thalassemias are primarily due to which of the following pathophysiologic processes?
impaired hemoglobin synthesis
Which of the following individuals likely faces the highest risk of megaloblastic anemis?
A 21 year old college student who lives a vegan lifestyle
A 68 year old patient with an 80 pack/year history of smoking was diagnosed with emphysema 18 months ago. The patient's most recent scheduled blood work showed red blood cell indices, a problem that suggests the need for which of the following interventions?
Increased supplementary oxygen therapy
A mother has brought her 2 week old infant to the emergency department due to the baby's persistent and increasing jaundice. Blood testing reveals that the infant's unconjugated bilirubin level is 28 mg/dL and assessment does not reveal neurologic deficits. The infant's weight is normal and the mother claims to have had no significant difficulty feeding the infant. The most likely treatment for this infant will be: