Cell Processes Study Guide

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Define autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
The cycle of photosynthesis and respiration keep which two gases constant?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Guanine always pairs with what?
Cytosine
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Oxygen and glucose
What happens during photosynthesis?
The sun's energy and carbon dioxide are captured by the cell and it is used to produce oxygen and glucose
How does photosynthesis benefit heterotrophs?
Photosynthesis adds oxygen to the air for heterotrophs to breathe
What happens during respiration?
Cells break down simple food molecules such as glucose and release the energy they contain through the mitochondria
How are photosynthesis and respiration related?
They are the opposite of each other
What happens during the mitosis stage?
The cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei
What happens during cytokinesis?
The cytoplasm divides, distribution g the organelles into each of the two new cells
DNA is shaped like a what?
A twisted latter or a spiral staircase
Adenine always pairs with what?
Thymine
Each rung of a DNA ladder is made of what?
A pair of molecules called nitrogen bases
Respiration in most cells requires what?
Glucose and oxygen
What stage of the cell cycle does replication occur?
Interphase
What is copied during replication?
The DNA
What are the small openings in a leaf that let in carbon dioxide called?
Stomata
All living things rely on what process to supply them with energy?
Respiration
During respiration, glucose combines with what to produce energy?
Oxygen
What are the products of respiration?
Carbon dioxide, water, and energy
Define mitosis
The stage during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei
Define cytokinesis
When the cell pinches into two new cells with the same number of chromosomes and half the organelles
Define mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome
Define chlorophyll
The main pigment found in the chloroplasts
What is the cell division process in order?
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
Define centromere
The region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach vie the kinetochore during cell devision
Define chromatids
One of the identical rods of a chromosome
How do plant cells and animal cells recycle each other's waste products?
Plant cells take in the carbon dioxide from the animal cell to form photosynthesis. An animal cell takes in glucose from the plant cell to perform cell respiration
Animals do not make their own food. Why do they rely on the sun for energy?
They rely on the sun for energy because the plants use sunlight to make food and animals consume the sugar that the plants produce. The sun also helps the plant produce oxygen
Define DNA replication and explain its function
The biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule
What are the raw materials and products in the cell during respiration?
The raw materials are oxygen and glucose and the products are energy, which comes from the oxygen breaking down the glucose in the mitochondria.