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The Industrial Revolution

A period of dynamic changes in manufacturing; one part of it was switching to machine production. Began in Britain in mid-1700's.

National road

Initially called the Cumberland Turnpike, started from Cumberland, MD in 1815. By 1818 it extended from Cumberland to Wheeling, WV and later to Vandalia, IL. Idea for this surfaced during Jefferson's presidency.

Erie Canal

Eventually linked the Hudson River to the itself. Project that began in 1817 by New York- one of the most ambitious transportation projects of the era. 3630-mile route that was a cheaper and faster route from the interior of the continent.

Market Revolution

Period of time when national markets were created. Increased farmers' and manufacturers' profits and changed the way they did work and business. Linked small towns to large markets.

Factory System

Allowed for efficient, mass production in machines; Samuel Slater was the father of this because of his new machine design that enabled mass production. Cut costs and did everything under one roof-system of manufacturing.

Lowell Girls

Young, single women from New England farms that had experience for the textile industry and were cheaper to hire than males. Lived in company-owned boardinghouses where older women acted as chaperones.


Favoring native-born Americans over foreign-born. The viewed immigrants, particularly the Irish, as politically corrupt and socially inferior. Blamed newcomers for slum conditions.

Second Great Awakening

Began as early as the 1790's in upstate New York; a renewed and passionate interest in religion. Evangelical movement that spread to NE, KY, OH and beyond the frontier farther south and west.


Literary/ philisophical movement during the 1830's, included people such as Ralph Waldo Emerson. The belief that people can transcend, or rise above, material things in life to reach a higher level of understanding.


The complete ban on the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol. Some reformers demanded this.

Seneca Falls Convention

1848- First American meeting on Women's rights in Seneca Falls, NY. More than 300 men and women attended this.

The Donner Party

Broke off from the Oregon Trail to head to California. Group of people became snowbound in the Sierra Nevada during the winter of 1846-47. 42 members died in the mountains.

Temperance Movement

Organized by reformers to persuade others to limit alcohol consumption.

The Mormons

Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints who undertook one of the most enduring utopian ventures.

The California Gold Rush

Began in 1849; hopeful gold seekers from as far away as Australia, China and Russia were rushing to North America and traveled through the mountain passes of the CA trail. People searched for gold and this state was made a much more diverse place and expanded economic opportunities.

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