How did use of machinery for a worker differ from an apprentice position?
•Apprentice- took years to learn a trade
•Machinery- allowed people to learn how to perform a task in a few days
•People no longer had to be really skilled in the work they did
Who did employers prefer to hirer and why?
•Employers hired young men and women and children
•Young men were able to do tasks quickly, which put older people out of work
•Hired women and children because they were willing to work for less than men
•Textile factories mainly employed young women and children
Why were older, skilled workers discriminated against? What did they end of doing?
•Older skilled workers were not needed because factories didn't need their skills and didn't hire them for small tasks
•They ended up looking for odd jobs in cities and on farms
•They also ended up sending their children to work
Contrast the domestic and factory systems.
Workers worked unsupervised in their homes
Turned over finished products once a week
Paid once a week for goods they completed
Worked in big spaces with many people under a supervisor
Only did a small part of the task and did not work on a product from start to finish
Paid wages by based on hours worked and amount of goods produced
How were the workers' wages determined?
a.Impact of land and capital costs of production-if land or capital increased, wages were lowered
b.Labor supply-oversupply of workers brought wages down, not enough workers brought wages up
c.Other employment competitors- wages depended on what people could earn at other jobs, ex. Women paid more than they would have been as a household servant
d.Gender- wages were higher for men
e.Advancement opportunities-when a factory worker acquired skills, they were paid accordingly
6. What rules did the workers have to follow?
•Had to arrive at the factory on time
•Could only eat or take breaks at set times
•Could only leave if they had permission
•Worked whether it was hot/cold, summer/winter, day/night
•Breaking rules resulted in fines, pay cuts, or job loss
7. What were the conditions like for the workers?
•Cold and damp in winter
•Steamy in summer
•Sanitary facilities were poor
•Machines had no safety devices → accidents occurred often
•Employers gave no compensation if a worker was hurt on the job
•14 hours a day, 6 days a week working
•had to adjust their lives to the demands of the machines that never needed to rest
Why did a parliamentary committee investigate working conditions in 1832 and what were their findings?`
•Abuses in factories scandalized GB
•They investigated for children
•Children were being forced to work from 5-9 and were beaten for beating late or working too slowly
How did parliament react?
•Passed the Factory Act of 1833
•Allowed for factory inspection and enforcement of child labor laws
Describe home life.
•Workers lived in shabby apartment buildings called tenements
•Often 12+ people per room
•Many other workers lived in cellars
Did conditions improve?
•Slightly over time as consumer goods became cheaper and more available to workers
•Wages increased somewhat
•Lower economic classes still suffered
What factors led to the rise of the middle class?
The balance of economic and political power shifted from agriculture to manufacturing, making industry and cities grow.
What did the middle class do for a living?
The middle class consisted of doctors, lawyers, manufacturers, bankers, merchants, doctors, engineers, and professors.
Discuss the lifestyles and living conditions?
•The finances of middle class families reflected the way they lived.
• Many could afford to live in larger homes in less crowded areas.
• Men wore business suits and women wore frills and lace.
• Children got a good education and may inherit money and social position from their parents.
How did women's jobs change?
Since the need for farm labor was decreased, many women found jobs in textile mills or factories. They also worked in domestic services.
Why were some women able to stay home and how did they manage their homes and family? (Cult of Domesticity)
Some families had enough money that the women didn't have to have jobs. They just took care of the task of running their home.
How did independent women live their lives?
•Jobs such as nurses, teachers, secretaries, and telephone operators opened to women.
•Women's colleges were founded so they could get a higher education.
The enclosure movement
•Common land in Eng. became fenced off
•Formed individual parts
•Small landholdings combined to make larger landholdings
Connection to the Agricultural Rev.
•Caused large landowners to have more power than smaller tenant farmers
• also caused people to not have to ask permission to test new farming methods (could test them freely)
Jethro Tull's contribution to the Agricultural Rev.
•He created the seed drill to allow seeds to be planted in straight rows
•prevented wasted seeds
•made horse drawn hoe to dig up weeds
•the wind won't blow away the seeds
•also it covers the rows with dirt so the birds won't eat them
Contributions of Charles Townshend to the Agricultural Rev.
•Brought crop rotation to England (left one field unplanted for a year to let soil get more nutrients)
•also planted different crops in soil each year to yield same results as crop rotation
Contributions of Jethro Wood to the Agricultural Rev.
Invented plow with replaceable blade (didn't have to buy new plow)
How did the Agricultural Revolution connect to the Industrial Revolution?
•Farm workers began to be replaced by machines and left land
•many people moved to cities and formed large labor force
Define factors of production
A favorable combination of the needed factors: land, capital, and labor
6 Advantages enjoyed by Great Britain in the process of industrializing
1.Rich supply of natural resources (ex. Coal, iron, ore)
2.Rivers provided water
3.Rivers also provided trade routes
4.Rich sources of capital (tools, equipment, inventory)
5.Large source of money from investing in new business
6.Large supply of labor from migration to cities
Role of each factor of production
•Land- supply of natural resources → rivers, canals, harbors, coal, iron
•Capital- money, supplies, etc.
•Labor- people to make the goods; from the population growth from the countryside
Needed to have an Agricultural Revolution to have the Textile Revolution and Urbanization because
that's where the work supply came from
Cottage Industry/ Putting Out System
•Monks would pick up sheered wool, take it to homes who did the spinning
•Then took spun thread and brought it to the weavers
•Would take the finished products and sell them at the monastery fairs
Where did the workers do their work in the Domestic System of the 1600s
How did workers function within it?
•Men and women in England spun thread and wove cloth by hand in their homes
oEngland couldn't meet the growing demand for cloth
•Automatic machinery was used to increase production → could do in minutes what took one person a few days
•Created a mechanic loom for weaving cloth
Contributions of John Kay 1733
•Invented the flying shuttle
oMoved the weft-carrying shuttle quickly across the loom
•Weavers could now make cloth much faster
Contributions of James Hargreaves 1760
•Invented the spinning "jenny"
•Machine that could produce 8x more thread than a single spinning wheel
Contributions of Richard Arkwright 1769
•Invented a new way to drive the machine by waterpower
•Brought workers and waterpower together and opened a spinning wheel in in 1780s
•Began the modern factory system
Function of the Factory System in the industrial process
•Inventions built on one another
•Flying shuttle = need for more thread = faster spinning = improved weaving machines...
•Allowed workers to meet their demand for cloth
Reason that there was a need for factories
•Needed places to put machines and have people work to produce the cloth
Contributions of Edmund Cartwright 1785
•Invented a water-powered loom
•One person could weave as much cloth 200 hand loom operators
Effects of mechanization?
•price of cotton cloth dropped
•demand for cloth increased → demand for cotton increased
Contributions of Eli Whitney 1793
•cleaning seeds from cotton was slow, manual work
•created the cotton gin
o could clean more cotton in a day than hand laborers could
•had the unintended side affect of helping expand slavery in the south bc the majority of the cotton came from there
Contributions of James Watt 1760's
•studied and improved on Newcomen's machine
•1769 patented the modern steam engine
•now steam powered ships and trains too
Contributions of Matthew Boulton
•financed the first factory to manufacture steam engines
•industry adapted the engine to power spinning and weaving machines
•steam replaced water as industry's major power source
Solution of the Bessemer process
•a cheaper, more efficient method of making steel
•injected air into a molten pig iron in order to remove impurities
Contributions of Charles Goodyear
He figured out that rubber could be made less sticky by means of vulcanization, which was the start of the modern rubber industry.
•Stone-topped roadways were built
•Canals were dug to link rivers, and the new canals had locks to regulate the water level.
Contributions of George Stephenson
He perfected a steam locomotive that ran on rails. 15 years later a locomotive was able to pull railroad cars. Railways were soon being built all over the world.
Contributions of Andre Ampere
A French man who worked out the principles governing the magnetic effect of electricity.
Contributions of Samuel Morse
He used the work of Volta and Ampere to invent the telegraph and morse code to make a practical communication device.
How did the industry spread?
Great Britain had the raw material and market for products, while other countries didn't
How did France outwit the Brits?
•They helped their own economy by putting a high tariff on foreign goods so people would want to get the goods from their own country
•They also encouraged the building of railroads
•Bad for France bc GB had all the raw materials
Why wasn't Germany a threat?
•Germany didn't have a central government to aid industrial growth
•Didn't have a strong central gov and didn't unify until the 1870s/1880s
o B4 a whole bunch of feudal lords
Why couldn't the Brits stop the U.S.?
•It had a strong central government and rich natural resources, as well as a rapidly increasing population.
•The U.S. adopted the methods of the British.
•Canals and railroads were built, and inventions were created, like the cotton gin and mechanical reaper.
He wrote Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nation
Focused on creation of wealth and importance of manufacturing
Founder of classical economics
2 laws governed businesses
1. supply and demand
2. law of competition-manufactures compete with eachother
believed in free enterprise- people free to engage in business of
laissez faire → let the economy run on supply and demand
Wrote Essay on the Principle of Population
Population increases present biggest problem to human
people multiply more rapidly than food supply increases
thought human misery and poverty were inevitable
Wrote Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
Working class poverty=inevitable
Supply and demand determines wages
Population grows⇒wages drop b/c there are more workers
⇒known as iron law of wages
Theory of utilitarianism
Argued law was useful and therefore good
Believed people should be educated so they could decide what
could be good for them and make them happy
Called for reform of nation's injustices and prison systems
John Stuart Mill
Believed government should work for good of all its citizens
Rejected economic systems that left workers in poverty
Called for gov't to protect working children and to improve
Wrote On the Subjection of Women⇒about women's rights
Believed gov't should support education and guarantee
What might be some outcomes of implementing Adam Smith's theories about free enterprise?
• People would be able to work for their own gain
• Would benefit all of society, not just upper class
• Businesses would be rewarded for meeting customer's demands
3. What does the theory of laissez-faire say should be done to achieve the most successful economy?
• Laissez-faire says the government should ne involved themselves in operations of business
• Basically meant "Let it be"
• People should be able to run their businesses how they want to
5. Why were Charles Dickens, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill each considered reformers?
• Used his novels to attack greedy employers
• Argued that the law was useful, therefore good
• Believed people should be educated so they could decide what things were good for them or make them happy
John Stuart Mill
• Believed a gov should work for the good of its citizens
• Rejected economic systems that left workers trapped in poverty
• Called for gov to protect working children and to improve housing and factory conditions
• Argued for full democracy and for equality for all men and women, regardless of their social class or economic power
6. Why would improving education and guaranteeing individual liberty help the working class?
• would include the right to think as one pleased and to freely express one's views
• the people would be more educated and they would be able to work more complex jobs
o more jobs = more money → help circulate money and lower the cost of goods
• all this would affect the working class positively
7. How did Adam Smith's ideas influence employers' treatment of workers?
• Good employees are made not found
• Employers have to give them the tools they need to succeed and appropriate compensation and advancement oppurtunities
• Instead of harming them when they made a mistake, he said to answer their questions and give them the correct information
a. Factory Act of 1802
• Shortened work hours
• Improved conditions for children working in cotton mills
b. Factory Act of 1833
• This allowed for the Factory Act of 1802 to be enforced and extended the law to all textile mills.
c. Ten Hours Act of 1847
• This set a 10 hour working day for women and for children younger than 18. Since this included most workers, factory owners extended this to everyone.
• Why was it easier for the government to pass laws about working hours than about wages?
• The workers had to fight for their wages themselves since the reform laws did nothing to help this problem. It was difficult for the government to set a set wage minimum for all factories.
What is collective action? How did the workers use strikes, unions and collective bargaining to achieve reforms by the workers themselves?
• Collective actions is when the workers would band together to demand reform.
• Strikes were when a large group of workers would stop working and refuse to work until their list of demands were met. Unions were groups that helped organize workers, especially if they went on strike.
• Workers used unions, strikes, and collective bargaining to use their power in numbers to get the reforms they wanted.
Why was the Combinations Act of 1799 and 1780 passed?
• Workers' associations were considered illegal by British law, but workers organized anyways. This Act said that if workers united to demand higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions, they would be imprisoned.
• It was passed so that the workers could be controlled, since they were ignoring the laws before.
Why was this same Combinations Act of 1799 repealed by 1825?
• The workers began to make progress and it was decided that they should be able to protest and go on strike.
Factory owners began to cooperate with the unions and workers. They made it open to discussion, rather than having it out
Why did many people become critical of the capitalist economic system in the 19th Century?
• A few people became rich but most remained poor
• Uneven distribution of wealth disturbed people
What was the proposed solution to these injustices?
• Change the ownership and operation of the means of production- include the capital and equipment used to produce and exchange goods
• Political and economic system under which Governments own the means of production and operate them for the benefit of all people
Who, in theory, benefits in a socialist government?
• Believed everyone would benefit from a socialist government
How did socialism differ from capitalism?
• Socialism- government controls production
• Capitalism- individuals control production
Define "utopian socialist"
• Early socialists who believed that people could live together in small cooperative settlements where everyone could work together for the common good
• Would own all means of production in common and share products
• Worked out plans for model towns → encouraged people to set them up
o Some modeled after Thomas Moore's Utopia, hence the name
. Where and how did Robert Owen organize his utopian communities?
• Built good homes for his workers to make them happier and more secure
o Set up schools for their kids, made resources available cheaply
• In the US → failed
o Later in the 1800s the cooperative movement spread to Europe and America
How did Owen believe that workers should help themselves?
• Workers shouldn't be dependent on their employers → encouraged unions
• Proposed they form "villages of cooperation"
o The unemployed would be self-supporting instead of relying on aid
Briefly describe the background of Karl Marx and what he published with Friedrich Engles in 1848.
• Believed utopian socialism was impractical
• Said entire capitalist system should be destroyed
• Believed great changes in history had come from changes in economic conditions
• Together they published The Communist Manifesto
o The history of today's society is the history of class struggles
List the historical stages of human history according to Marx
• Free man and slave
• Patrician and plebian
• Lord and serf
• Guild master and journeyman
Characterize the struggle that existed between individuals in each one of these historical stages.
• Each stage involved inequality and struggle between those who did and didn't own property
• Oppressor and oppressed stood in constant opposition to one another
o Carried on a fight that each time ended in either a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large or in the common ruin of the contending class
The owners during the capitalist stage of the 1800s that Marx believed was unfair to the proletariat.
The working class, that Marx thought would be driven into poverty by the capitalists and then end up revolting
Who was gaining the surplus wealth? The bourgeoisie or the proletariat?
• The bourgeoisie was gaining the surplus of wealth through profits and the proletariat just got poorer because of this.
. Why did Marx believe that capitalism was an unfair system?
• He believed that capitalism gave no chance to the proletariat to gain money, and gave all power to the bourgeoisie. He thought they have no chance to revive themselves from poverty unless they ended up uniting and revolting.
What did Marx believe would happen in an advanced capitalist society to solve this unfair system?
• He thought that in the most advanced nations, the proletariat would unite and take over power in a socialist revolution.
What was the "dictatorship of the proletariat"?
• This would be the period in which the revolutionaries would have to control the government by force since it would not accept socialism.
What did Marx believe would evolve from the dictatorship of the proletariat?
• He thought that "pure communism" would result, with a classless society. This would happen when people finally learned to work together cooperatively. He thought that this would the inevitable outcome.
7. What is the difference between "authoritarian socialism: or communism and "democratic socialism.
• Communism was when the government controlled means of production and controlled all economic planning. It was the result of Marxism and trying to get rid of capitalism.
• Democratic socialism was another socialist form of government that was thought to be developed from education and democratic forms of government. They thought that if people became educated about socialism they could elect their leaders, so that the government could peacefully control production. This way the people can partially control the economy through democracy.
Division of Labor
• Factory owners divided the manufacturing process into steps
• Increased mass production
• The use of machines in many of the steps helped the workers produce more in less time
• Lowered cost of production
• Made more profit for the owners
• All the parts were alike → unskilled workers could change out interchangeable parts if something broke
• Each part of an item was created in a different art of the factory then brought together for assembly
• Each worker performed the same, one task → saved time and energy
• Number of times per hour a worker could perform a task increased
8. How did changes in production methods lead to an improved standard of living?
• By changing methods, manufacturers were able to lower the price of goods
• Now more people could by various products
• Could enjoy a higher standard of living
9. What were businesses like before the Industrial Revolution?
• Most were small
• Sole proprietorship - a business owned and run by only one person
• Also partnerships
• Each owner personally responsible for debts
• Small companies with few workers couldn't afford mass production
10. How did corporations work? Role of banks?
• People could by stock in companies
• Easier to raise the money needed to run a business
• Stock holders shared profits depending on the amount of stock one owned
• A stockholder's financial responsibility was limited to what they had invested
i. Investors interested in corps
12. Why did the corporations try to work at full capacity? Were the results always good? Explain
• To take advantage of mass production
• Produced more goods than they could sell
i. Cutting prices to sell more products could mean smaller profits
13. What impact did corporations have on small businesses?
• Smaller businesses sold out to large ones or failed
i. Couldn't keep up
14. Define monopoly
• Complete control of the production or sale of a single good or service by a single firm.
16. How might monopolies and cartels have affected a nation's economy?
• Monopolies and Cartels are good for the company involved, but may be bad for the nation's economy. It does not allow for any competition.
17. What advantages did corporations have over sole ownerships and partnerships?
• It was easier for a corporation to raise the money needed to run and expand the business. They were also liked by investors, and were supported by banks.
18. How does the business cycle work? (include depression).
• The success and failures of different industries affect each other. An increased demand for goods increased the demand for machines to make these goods. The materials to make the goods were then in higher demand, as well as the workers to make them. This gave the workers higher wages and increased purchasing power, and the demand for them was higher.
• If the demand for goods fell, companies would have to lay off workers. Since the workers wouldn't have as much money, the demand for goods would fall. This caused many factories to close, and the economy would sink into a depression. When demand comes back, the factories would reopen and workers were hired again. This would continue the cycle.
an economic system in which individuals and corporations rather than governments, control the factors of production
• Commercial capitalism
before industrial revolution when most capitalists were merchants who bought and sold goods
• Industrial capitalism
during industrial revolution when capitalists became more involved with producing and manufacturing goods
2. How did division of labor work? Why was it used?
• The manufacturing process was divided into steps
• An unskilled laborer was hired and assigned a step
• This increased production
• Machines helped workers produce more in shorter time frame which lowered cost of production
3. How did Eli Whitney contribute to the division of labor? Define interchangeable parts
• Whitney invented machines that made parts that were all alike, so if one part of a product broke a whole new one wouldn't have to be made
o Interchangeable parts- identical parts that could be easily replaced
• Whitney allowed for a speedier production
5. Explain how the assembly line worked
• Parts were carried from worker to worker
• Each worker performed a certain task on the part
• This saved time and energy and allowed for workers to perform the task a greater number of times