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19 terms

Gross and Microscopic Anatomy of Bones

Human Anatomy 5 Ed, Ch. 6
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Long bones
A bone that is longer than it is wide, has a shaft with 2 distinct ends, most limbs are long bones. Tibia, fibula, femur, humerus.
Short bone
Roughly cube shaped bones that occur in the wrists and ankles, as well as sesamoid bones like the patella
Flat bones
Thin, flattened, and somewhat curved, most cranial bones of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and scalpula.
Irregular bones
Various shapes that don't fit into any other categories, vertabrae and hip bones
Compact bone
The dense outer layer of bone that appears smooth and solid to the naked eye
Spongy bone
Internal to compact bone layer, composed of a honeycomb of small needle like or flat pieces called trabeculae, whose open spaces are filled with red or yellow marrow
Diaphysis
The shaft that forms the axis of long bone
Epiphysis
The bone ends of the long bone, each epiphysis is covered with a thin layer of articular cartilage
Blood Vessels
3-11% of blood in the body is in the skeleton, the main vessels are the nutrient artery and nutrient vein running through the nutrient foramen of the diaphysis.
Medullary Cavity
The very center of the diaphysis of long bones contains no bone tissue, but is a cavity filled with yellow bone marrow
Periosteum
Connective tissue membrane that surrounds the entire outer surface of bone except the ends of the epiphyses, 2 sublayers-superficial is dense irregular connective tissue, deep osteogenic layer containing osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Endosteum
thinner, connective tissue membrane covering the trabaculae of spongy bone
Diploe
Means "folded", the internal spongy bone of flat bones, in which spongy layer is folded between two layers of compact bone.
Bone markings
Superficial surface markings fit into 3 categories 1) Projections that are attachment sites for ligaments and muscles, 2 surfaces that form joints, or 3 depressions and openings
Osteon
aka Haversian system, a group of concentric tubes, `function as miniature, weight bearing pillars,
Lamella
Layer of bone matrix in which collagen fibers and minerals align and run in a single direction, alternating lamellas withstand torsion/twisting stresses
Central canal
Haversian Canal-internal bone cavity lined by endosteum containing BVs and nerve fibers
Perforating canal
Volkmann's canal-lie at right angles and connect blood and nerve supply of periosteum to central canals and marrow cavity
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells, maintain bone matrix