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________ psychologists tend to see the mind as having "psychological circuits" so that human beings are predisposed to act in certain ways.


Researchers have found that men are usually assumed to be more aggressive than women. However, when women believe they are not being observed they are often just as aggressive as men. Of the following professionals, ________ psychologists would probably be the most interested in these findings


The two schools of thought that paved the way for the cognitive revolution in psychology in the 1960s were ________.

Gestalt theory and humanistic psychology

Positive psychologists are most similar in their beliefs to ________.


A group of psychologists are interested in how hormones, psychoactive medications, and "social drugs" affect us. They are most likely to be ________.

biological psychologists

Personality theories contending that personality results from various psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside the conscious awareness of the individual, are ________ theories.


According to Wundt, the mind should be studied ________.


When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ________.

naturalistic observation

If explanation of the causes of thoughts, feelings, and behavior is a psychologist's goal, then the ________ method of research should be used.


B. F. Skinner is associated with ________.


When we listen to a favorite piece of music, we tend to experience the melodies and harmonies as a beautiful single piece of music rather than as the series of separate notes of which the song is actually composed. This phenomenon illustrates an important point made by ________.

Gestalt psychologists

Case studies, naturalistic observation, and surveys are best suited for ________ behaviors, beliefs, opinions, and attitudes.


Research involving the exploration of the extent to which people differ from one culture to another is called ________ research.


The term sexual ________ refers to whether a person is sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex or same sex.


Cognitive psychologists are concerned with the scientific study of ________.

mental processes

Which of the following is not one of the main stages of the history of psychology discussed in your text?

the emergence of a science of the mind

Wilhelm runs an experiment and finds that males with high levels of testosterone tend to be more physically aggressive than males with lower levels of testosterone. This leads him to believe that testosterone has a direct effect on physical aggression in males. Wilhelm's belief is best described as a ________.


According to Freud, much of our behavior is controlled by ________.

unconscious desires

The expectations of a researcher that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what he or she actually observed is called ________.

observer bias

Two groups of people are given different kinds of practice problems in logic. They are then tested on a set of new problems to determine whether one kind of practice was better than the other. The nature of the practice problems is the ________ variable.


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