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Advanced Pathophysiology-Chapter 35
Terms in this set (46)
Besides dyspnea, what is the most common characteristic associated with pulmonary disease?
Sitting up in a forward-leaning position generally relieves which breathing disorder?
Kussmaul respirations as a respiratory pattern may be associated with which characteristic(s)?
Slightly increased ventilatory rate, large tidal volumes, and no expiratory pause
Respirations that are characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing are a result of which respiratory mechanism?
Decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata
With a total hemoglobin of 9 g/dl, how many grams per deciliter of hemoglobin must become desaturated for cyanosis to occur?
Which statement is true regarding ventilation?
Hyperventilation causes hypocapnia.
What term is used to describe the selective bulbous enlargement of the distal segment of a digit that is commonly associated with diseases that interfere with oxygenation of the blood?
High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through which mechanism?
Decreased inspired oxygen
What is the most common cause of pulmonary edema?
Left-sided heart failure
The collapse of lung tissue caused by the lack of collateral ventilation through the pores of Kohn is referred to as what type of atelectasis?
In what form of bronchiectasis do both constrictions and dilations deform the bronchi?
In which type of pleural effusion does the fluid become watery and diffuse out of the capillaries as a result of increased blood pressure or decreased capillary oncotic pressure?
Which condition involves an abnormally enlarged gas-exchange system and the destruction of the lung's alveolar walls?
Which term is used to identify a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma?
Which condition is not a cause of chest wall restriction?
What causes pneumoconiosis?
Inhalation of inorganic dust particles
Which condition is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Which structure(s) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) release inflammatory mediators such as proteolytic enzymes, oxygen-free radicals, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet-activating factor?
Pulmonary edema in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the result of an increase in:
In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of which mechanism?
Inactivation of surfactant and the impairment of type II alveolar cells
Which type of pulmonary disease requires more force to expire a volume of air?
Which immunoglobulin (Ig) may contribute to the pathophysiologic characteristics of asthma?
Which statement about the late asthmatic response is true?
The release of toxic neuropeptides contributes to increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
Clinical manifestations of inspiratory and expiratory wheezing, dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and tachypnea are indicative of which condition?
The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with which action?
Avoidance of the causative agent
Which factor contributes to the production of mucus associated with chronic bronchitis?
Increased Goblet cell size
Clinical manifestations of decreased exercise tolerance, wheezing, shortness of breath, and productive cough are indicative of which respiratory disorder?
Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of which respiratory disorder?
Which of the following is the most common route of lower respiratory tract infection?
Aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions
What is the initial step in the management of emphysema?
Cessation of smoking
In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating which action?
Apoptotic infected macrophages that activate cytotoxic T cells
The progression of chronic bronchitis is best halted by which intervention?
Clinical manifestations of inspiratory crackles, increased tactile fremitus, egophony, and whispered pectoriloquy are indicative of which respiratory condition?
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) results from which alteration?
Narrowed pulmonary capillaries
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is best described as a tumor that causes which alterations?
Airway obstruction and atelectasis
What medical term is used to identify the accumulation of air in the pleural space?
What medical term is used to identify the presence of pus in the pleural space?
Fluid in the pleural space characterizes which condition?
Which statement is true regarding hypoxemia?
Respiratory alterations cause hypoxemia.
Which medication classification is generally included in the treatment of silicosis?
What are the causes of dyspnea?
Decreased pH, increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and decreased partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), Stimulation of stretch or J-receptors, Presence of anxiety.
Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma?
Histamine, Bradykinin, Leukotrienes, Prostaglandins.
Which clinical manifestation is associated with pulmonary hypertension?
Dyspnea on exertion, Peripheral edema, Jugular venous distention.
Which statements are true regarding exudative effusion?
Exudative effusion contains high concentrations of white blood cells., Exudative effusion may occur in response to an inflammatory process., The presence of a malignant cancer can trigger exudative effusion., Exudative effusion is a result of increased capillary permeability.
Which characteristics are symptomatic of a flail chest?
Involves the fracture of several consecutive ribs, Involves multiple fractures to individual ribs., Can involve the fracture of the sternum.
Which statements regarding Mycobacterium tuberculosis are true regarding the bacilli's ability to go into dormancy?
Neutrophils and macrophages all play a role in its dormancy., The immune system is the controlling factor regarding its length of dormancy., The bacilli are sealed off in tubercles to allow for dormancy.
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