Quality Control

Study cards for my final exam on Quality Control
Which of the following refers to any activity aimed at providing customers with products of appropriate quality along with the confidence that products meet consumers' requirements?
a. Quality review
b. Quality control
c. Quality engineering
d. Quality assurance
Quality Assurance
Quality assurance depends on two focal points in business:
a. design of products; control of quality during delivery.
b. adherence to policy; after sales service.
c. time and motion guidelines; management policy on quality.
d. global quality time and motion guidelines standards; workforce orientation and commitment.
Design of products; control of quality during delivery.
A key contribution of Frederick Taylor's scientific management philosophy was to:
a. reduce the reliance on inspectors for quality assurance.
b. increase the training and education workers received.
c. separate the planning function from the execution function.
d. combine individual work tasks to promote teamwork.
Separate the planning function from the execution function.
The change in society's attitude from "let the buyer beware" to "let the producer beware" was fuelled by all the following factors EXCEPT:
a. government safety regulations.
b. product recalls.
c. popularity of TQM as a quality tool.
d. the rapid increase in product-liability judgments.
popularity of TQM as a quality tool.
Which of the following is most appropriate in describing the quality efforts undertaken with the scientific management philosophy?
a. Defect prevention was emphasized.
b. Quality circles were extensively used.
c. Use of inspection was wide-spread.
d. Quality was every worker's responsibility.
Use of inspection was wide-spread.
The creation of separate quality departments in the early 1900s caused:
a. indifference to quality among workers and their managers.
b. upper management to be more knowledgeable about quality.
c. production quality to substantially improve.
d. production efficiency to decline.
indifference to quality among workers and their managers.
The two U.S. consultants that worked with the Japanese to integrate quality throughout their organizations in the 1950s were:
a. Juran and Crosby.
b. Deming and Crosby.
c. Deming and Juran.
d. Juran and Crosby.
Deming and Juran.
In the 1950s, the Japanese integrated quality throughout their organizations and developed a culture of _____ sometimes referred to by the Japanese term kaizen.
a. consumer orientation
b. internal competition
c. process innovation
d. continuous improvement
continuous improvement
By the 1990s, many manufacturers discovered that _____ is as critical to retaining customers as the tangible products they buy, and turned attention to such support processes as order entry, delivery, and complaint response.
a. service quality
b. systems thinking
c. perceived value
d. inventory management
service quality
_____ —a form of team participation—were developed in the late 1970s at several Department of Defense installations, such as the Norfolk Naval Shipyard and the Cherry Point Naval Air Station.
a. Systems thinking
b. Continuous improvement
c. The Golden Hammer
d. Quality circle programs
Quality circle programs
Continuous improvement is evaluated using four processes. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. The Performance Appraisal Review Process
b. The Comprehensive Local Employment Program
c. The Performance Measurement System
d. Surveys and committee evaluations
The Comprehensive Local Employment Program
Viewing a McDonald's restaurant as being composed of order taking/cashier, grilling and food preparation, drive-through, purchasing, and training processes is an example of:
a. just-in-time control.
b. systems thinking.
c. resource alignment.
d. functional analysis.
systems thinking.
In a typical manufacturing system, which of the following will be the responsibility of the Purchasing and Receiving department?
a. Installation and service
b. Industrial engineering and process design
c. Tool engineering
d. Production planning and scheduling
Production planning and scheduling
Systems thinking:
a. has yet to be viewed as an important aspect in the managing for quality.
b. has been determined to be an unimportant aspect in the managing for quality.
c. is viewed as an important aspect in the managing for quality.
d. is a controversial topic among quality management professionals.
is viewed as an important aspect in the managing for quality.
Systems thinking can be applied to the analysis of:
a. manufacturing processes but not service processes.
b. service processes but not manufacturing processes.
c. both manufacturing and service processes.
d. manufacturing processes in engineering industries only.
both manufacturing and service processes.
Which of the following is NOT a leading quality management practice in purchasing and receiving?
a. Selecting a supplier who bids the lowest price on a supply contract
b. Training suppliers in quality improvement methodology
c. Retaining suppliers that meet expectations for superior quality
d. Requiring suppliers to provide proof of capable processes
Selecting a supplier who bids the lowest price on a supply contract
In mechanical assemblies, _____ lead(s) to inconsistent performance and premature wear and failure.
a. poor inspection
b. lack of systems approach
c. outdated technology
d. variations from specifications
variations from specifications
According to Deming, product or a service possesses quality if it:
a. conforms to standards and provides customer satisfaction.
b. helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market.
c. matches or exceeds the standards set by the competition.
d. incorporates quality in its design, production, and delivery.
helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market.
Which of the following individuals is credited with having the greatest influence on quality management?
a. Philip B. Crosby
b. W. Edwards Deming
c. Kaoru Ishikawa
d. Joseph M. Juran
W. Edwards Deming
According to Deming, _____ is the chief culprit of poor quality.
a. standardization
b. variation
c. tolerance
d. lack of innovation
The theory behind _____ is that improvements in quality lead to lower costs.
a. Deming Chain Reaction
b. Ford Quality Process
c. Duran-Crosby Process Improvement Plan
d. Quality-Cost Matrix
Deming Chain Reaction
Deming's Profound Reflective Thinking system consists of four interrelated parts. Which of the following is NOT one among them?
a. Appreciation for a system
b. Understanding variation
c. Theory of quality
d. Psychology
Theory of quality
_____, or doing the best for individual components, results in losses to everybody in the system.
a. Capacity planning
b. Suboptimization
c. Marginal costing
d. Single sourcing
_____ are the primary tools used to identify and quantify variation.
a. Gantt charts
b. Statistical methods
c. Cause and effect diagrams
d. Marginal costing sheets
Statistical methods
An organization must address certain key practices to achieve a strategic focus on performance excellence. Which of the following is not one of them?
a. Gather and analyze relevant data and information pertaining to such factors as the organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
b. Develop and refine a systematic approach for conducting strategic planning and setting strategic objectives.
c. Understand the competitive environment, the principal factors that determine success, the organization's core competencies, and strategic challenges.
d. Execute mergers and acquisitions, with an aim to expand business globally and to form coalitions and cartels to achieve the same.
Execute mergers and acquisitions, with an aim to expand business globally and to form coalitions and cartels to achieve the same.
In the study mentioned in the text, the top ones mentioned as key competencies critical for leadership effectiveness were all of the following EXCEPT:
a. "articulate a tangible vision, values, and strategy."
b. "be people-friendly—approachable but assertive."
c. "be a catalyst/manager of strategic change."
d. "get results— manage strategy to action."
"be people-friendly—approachable but assertive."
"A person's ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization, and its competitive advantage to the organization in this way." This definition applies to:
a. Organizational leadership
b. Strategic planning
c. Strategic leadership
d. Long-term planning
Strategic leadership
Effective strategic leaders also have the capability to create and maintain the ability for an organization to learn, which is termed:
a. absorptive capacity.
b. adaptive capacity.
c. proactive capacity.
d. strategic learning capacity.
absorptive capacity.
The ability of an organization to change in order to deal with increasingly hyper-turbulent environments is referred to as:
a. proactive capacity.
b. pliability and malleability.
c. adaptive capacity.
d. absorptive capacity.
adaptive capacity.
Strategic leadership can be viewed from three levels. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. Senior
b. Entry-level
c. Mid-level
d. Supervisory
Characteristics of effective strategic leadership include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. serving as both leaders and team members.
b. demonstrating the importance of integrity through actions rather than simply articulating it.
c. thinking in terms of processes rather than outcomes.
d. viewing employees as resources.
viewing employees as resources.
._____ leaders ensure that action plans are deployed throughout the organization so that essential tasks and projects may be accomplished in support of the strategic vision.
a. Strategic
b. Senior
c. Mid-level
d. Supervisory
If a competitor's product offers the same benefits at a lower price, then the competitor's product provides:
a. higher value.
b. lower quality.
c. lower value.
d. higher quality.
higher value.
The determinants of the American Customer Satisfaction Index value include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. perceived value.
b. customer loyalty.
c. customer expectations.
d. perceived quality
customer loyalty.
_____ is the product quality dimension which relates to the degree to which a product's physical and performance characteristics match pre-established standards.
a. Features
b. Performance
c. Conformance
d. Serviceability
Maintaining a clean, well-lighted waiting room in a doctor's office is an example of which service quality dimension?
a. Competence
b. Courtesy
c. Assurance
d. Tangibles
Which of the following is NOT a dimension of product quality listed in the textbook?
a. Performance
b. Responsiveness
c. Features
d. Conformance
According to Kano's classification of customer requirements, a cup of coffee that is served hot and fresh at a restaurant specializing in breakfasts fits which class of customer requirements?
a. Dissatisfier
b. Satisfier
c. Exciter
d. Delighter
Which of the following is used to organize large number of ideas or facts into natural groupings?
a. Process flow chart
b. Scoring system
c. Affinity diagram
d. Likert scale
Affinity diagram
Leading customer-oriented practices of successful companies include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. recognize that all customers should to be treated in the same manner.
b. understand the linkages between customer needs and business processes.
c. make commitments to customers that build trust and confidence.
d. compare customer satisfaction results to those of their competitors.
recognize that all customers should to be treated in the same manner.
The Taylor system of workforce management improved _____ at the expense of _____.
a. union relations, productivity
b. quality, productivity
c. planning, execution
d. productivity, worker creativity
productivity, worker creativity
Which of the following is NOT TRUE regarding the Taylor system of workforce management?
a. Work processes are controlled externally.
b. Workers who run the process control it.
c. People are a part of the process.
d. Managers are to carefully control people.
Workers who run the process control it.
The major focus of Taylor's philosophy of scientific management was:
a. productivity.
b. automation.
c. quality.
d. labor relations.
Which of the following is NOT an activity related to human resource management?
a. Determining the organization's workforce needs
b. Assisting in the design of work systems
c. Acting as a liaison with unions and government organizations
d. Partnering operations in setting production metrics
Partnering operations in setting production metrics
Which of the following is NOT an important human resource skill that managers must possess to achieve performance excellence?
a. Developing skills through training and coaching
b. Promoting teamwork and participation
c. Motivating and recognizing employees
d. Designing process specifics and metrics
Designing process specifics and metrics
Research has found that employee satisfaction is:
a. unrelated to customer satisfaction.
b. positively related to customer satisfaction.
c. negatively related to customer satisfaction.
d. related to customer satisfaction only in manufacturing firms.
positively related to customer satisfaction.
Which of the following is NOT regarded as a traditional activity of personnel managers?
a. Interviewing job applicants
b. Conducting training courses
c. Planning the corporate culture
d. Negotiating union labor contracts
Planning the corporate culture
The Taylor system of workforce management failed to promote:
a. productivity.
b. worker creativity.
c. management responsibility.
d. work standards.
worker creativity.
The employees of an insurance firm are given the task of studying the very successful employee training program at a bank. This is an example of:
a. process management.
b. strategic reengineering.
c. benchmarking.
d. quality control.
The employees of a manufacturing company who bill customers are involved in a(n) _________ for this manufacturing company.
a. value-creation process
b. support process
c. outsourced process
d. supplier process
support process
Which of the following is TRUE of support processes?
a. Support processes are those that are most important to an organization's value- creation processes.
b. They provide infrastructure and add value directly to the product or service.
c. Support processes do not include administrative services.
d. Value creation processes require a higher level of attention than do support processes.
They provide infrastructure and add value directly to the product or service.
In many companies, value creation processes take the form of _____ temporary work structures that start up, produce products or services, and then shut down.
a. projects
b. outsourcing
c. crisis teams
d. product teams
A graphical representation of a process sequence is known as:
a. an affinity diagram.
b. a Pareto chart.
c. a flowchart.
d. a control chart
a flowchart.
Which type of process drives the creation of products and services, is critical to customer satisfaction, and has a large impact on the organization's strategic goals?
a. Value-creation process
b. Support process
c. Outsourced process
d. Supplier process
Value-creation process
Process management consists of:
a. design, installation, and improvement.
b. design, control, and improvement.
c. design, control, and standardization.
d. analysis, control, and improvement.
design, control, and improvement.
_______ are accountable for process performance.
a. Process managers
b. Process owners
c. Process workers
d. Process black belts
Process owners
_____ is/are simply representation(s) of facts that come from some type of measurement process.
a. Data
b. Measures
c. Indicators
d. Information
_____ is a measurement that is not a direct or exclusive measure of performance.
a. Information
b. An indicator
c. A scorecard
d. A dashboard
An indicator
Data and information support management at different levels. Which of the following is NOT an example of data at the individual level that helps provide real-time information for feedback and process control?
a. Quality performance
b. Adherence to schedules
c. Costs of operations
d. Productivity measures
Productivity measures
At the _____ level, operational performance data such as yields, cycle times, and productivity measures help middle managers determine accomplishment of their objectives, whether they are using resources effectively, and where improvement might be necessary.
a. individual
b. process
c. organization
d. industry
Which of the following is NOT a benefit derived from good data and information management?
a. Workers obtain concrete feedback on their performance.
b. Operational cost are lowered due to better planning and improvement actions.
c. Large quantities of data-laden reports are generated.
d. Indicators provide effective measurement of customer service levels.
Large quantities of data-laden reports are generated.
If a company finds that the level of employee satisfaction appears to predict turnover, then employee satisfaction represents ______ measure while turnover represents ______ measure.
a. a leading, a lagging
b. a prescriptive, a predictive
c. a dependent, an independent
d. a prevention, an appraisal
a leading, a lagging
Companies that recognize the importance of reliable and appropriate data and information practice all of the following activities EXCEPT:
a. development of a comprehensive set of performance indicators.
b. continuous refining of information sources and their uses.
c. ensuring that hardware and software systems are user-friendly.
d. collecting and analyzing data by quality control departments perform the collection and analysis of data.
collecting and analyzing data by quality control departments perform the collection and analysis of data.
Traditionally, most organizations relied on the following performance data EXCEPT:
a. customer perspective.
b. return on investment.
c. earnings per share.
d. machine utilization.
customer perspective.
_____ refers to an organization's ability to address current needs and have the agility and management skills and structure to prepare successfully for the future, including preparedness for emergencies.
a. Proactivity
b. Sustainability
c. Future-orientation
d. Internal capacity
_____ is the ability to positively influence people and systems under one's authority so as to have a meaningful impact and achieve important results.
a. Leadership
b. Power
c. Charisma
d. Direction
The Human Development and Leadership Division of the American Society for Quality has summarized six competencies for leadership. Which of the following is NOT one of the competencies?
a. Navigator
b. Mentor
c. Protector
d. Motivator
_____ refers to how leadership is exercised, formally and informally, throughout an organization.
a. Management grid
b. Leadership system
c. Organizational hierarchy
d. Leadership spectrum
Leadership system
An effective leadership system:
a. follows strict hierarchical structures.
b. respects the capabilities of employees.
c. respects the requirements of employees.
d. sets high expectations for performance.
follows strict hierarchical structures.
_____ includes ethics, corporate governance, and protection of public health, safety, and the environment.
a. Ethical volunteerism
b. Green management
c. Moral management
d. Corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility
Building and sustaining performance excellence requires all of the following EXCEPT:
a. strong hierarchy in the organizational structure.
b. a commitment to change and long-term sustainability.
c. the adoption of sound practices and implementation strategies.
d. continual organizational learning
strong hierarchy in the organizational structure.
A company's value system and its collection of guiding principles is known as its:
a. mission statement.
b. corporate culture.
c. strategic plan.
d. vision statement.
corporate culture.
Statistical thinking is a philosophy of learning and action based on all of the following principles EXCEPT:
a. all work occurs in a system of interconnected processes.
b. variation exists in all processes.
c. all variation can be traced to human error.
d. understanding and reducing variation are keys to success.
all variation can be traced to human error.
All of the following are illustrated by the Red Bead Experiment EXCEPT:
a. management is responsible for the system.
b. all the variation in the production of red beads came entirely from the process itself.
c. special cause variation can be predicted.
d. numerical goals are often meaningless.
special cause variation can be predicted.
A system governed only by common cause variation is a system that:
a. ensures high productivity.
b. is stable.
c. meets a customer's quality specifications.
d. has zero natural variation.
is stable.
_____ is the process of drawing conclusions about unknown characteristics of a population from which data are taken.
a. Logical inference
b. Post-data inference
c. Statistical inference
d. Random inference
Statistical inference
Characteristics of the population are called:
a. point estimates.
b. random variables.
c. statistics.
d. parameters.
The component of statistical methodology that includes the collection, organization, and summarization of data is called:
a. descriptive statistics.
b. analytical statistics.
c. inferential statistics.
d. predictive statistics.
descriptive statistics.
Which of the following is NOT a tool for descriptive statistics?
a. Frequency distribution
b. Regression analysis
c. Proportion
d. Histogram
Regression analysis
The following sample data were collected: 12.0, 18.3, 29.6, 14.3 and 27.8. The sample standard deviation for this data is equal to _____.
a. 2.18
b. 7.093
c. 20.4
d. 23.9
Determining the most likely causes of defects occurs during which DMAIC phase?
a. Define
b. Measure
c. Analyze
d. Improve
Six Sigma represents a quality level of at most:
a. 1.5 defects per million opportunities.
b. 2.0 defects per million opportunities.
c. 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
d. 4.5 defects per million opportunities.
3.4 defects per million opportunities.
The Six-Sigma problem solving approach contains the phases of:
a. detect, measure, analyze, improve, and control.
b. define, measure, analyze, implement, and control.
c. define, monitor, analyze, improve, and confirm.
d. define, monitor, analyze, implement, and control.
detect, measure, analyze, improve, and control.
A bank's savings account statements contain 24 items of account information. Last month, 2500 bank statements were checked and 52 errors were found in the account items. What is the dpmo value?
a. 0.021
b. 867
c. 0.46
d. 1154
A deviation between what should be happening and what is actually happening that is important enough to make someone think that the deviation ought to be corrected is known as:
a. a defect.
b. an error.
c. a problem.
d. a variance.
a problem.
Accomplishment of any improvement that takes an organization to unprecedented levels of performance is known as:
a. kaizen.
b. a breakthrough.
c. a real solution.
d. a leap forward.
a breakthrough.
Which of the following constitutes an operational definition of a service quality measure?
a. Highly professional service
b. Few late deliveries
c. Phone calls answered within two rings
d. Very accurate customer billing
Phone calls answered within two rings
The "5 Why" technique is useful in identifying:
a. important symptoms of a problem.
b. the importance of a problem.
c. a suitable solution to a problem.
d. the root cause of a problem.
the root cause of a problem.
The Taguchi loss function L(x) = k(x-T)2 is appropriate for which case?
a. Smaller is better
b. Nominal is best
c. Larger is better
d. Ordinal is best
Nominal is best
Given the following Taguchi loss function and specifications, determine the estimated loss if the quality characteristic under study takes on a value of 6.30 inches.

Taguchi loss function: L(x) = 8,500(x-T)2
Specifications (in inches): 6.00 ± 0.25.

a. $765.00
b. $2,550.00
c. $21.25
d. $1,349.21
A product's quality characteristic has a specification (in inches) of 0.200 ± 0.020. If the value of the quality characteristic exceeds 0.200 by the tolerance of 0.020 on either side, the product will require a repair of $150. The Taguchi loss function for this example is given by:
a. L(x) = 60(x-T)2
b. L(x) = 150(x-T)
c. L(x) = 375,000(x-T)2
d. L(x) = 30(x-T)2
L(x) = 375,000(x-T)2
Consider the quality specification: 'twenty plus or minus five.' The 'plus or minus five' is referred to as the:
a. tolerance.
b. nominal dimension.
c. target value.
d. precision.
The acronym "QFD" stands for:
a. quality forming dimensions.
b. quality function deployment.
c. quality feedback dissemination.
d. quality focused design
quality function deployment.
All products that are produced within tolerance specifications are equally acceptable. This statement illustrates:
a. the underlying principle of the Taguchi loss function.
b. a manufacturing orientation that emphasizes precision.
c. the Japanese approach to product design.
d. the goalpost mentality.
the goalpost mentality.
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding quality function deployment?
a. It reduces the time for new product development.
b. It allows companies to simulate the effects of new design ideas.
c. It is a useful tool for competitive analysis by top management.
d. It is a means for deploying quality assurance throughout the production process.
It is a means for deploying quality assurance throughout the production process.
Which of the following tools is most closely associated with quality function deployment?
a. Concept Engineering
b. Taguchi Loss Function
c. House of Quality
d. Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
House of Quality
The first step in building the House of Quality is to:
a. identify customer requirements.
b. evaluate the competition.
c. identify technical requirements.
d. identify selling points.
identify customer requirements.
The roof of the House of Quality shows the interrelationships between:
a. technical requirements.
b. customer requirements and technical requirements.
c. cost requirements and profit requirements.
d. customer requirements.
technical requirements.
Where are customer requirements listed in the House of Quality?
a. In the roof
b. Across the top
c. Down the left column
d. Across the bottom
Down the left column
Wide tolerances tend to increase all of the following EXCEPT:
a. material utilization.
b. manufacturing costs.
c. labor productivity.
d. machine throughput.
manufacturing costs.