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44 terms

Behavior Analysis and Learning

STUDY
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discriminative stimulus
an even or stimulus that precedes an operant and sets the occassion for operant behavior
defined by its effect on behavior, not by its form
discriminative stimulus
"natural science" approach to understanding behavior regulation
experimental analysis of behavior
what is experimental analysis of behavior concerned with?
controlling and changing the factors that affect behavior
Pavlov
research was directed at observable responses and stimuli
attempted to track down source of 'psychic' secretions led him to discover respondent conditioning
Pavlov
Watson
first self proclaimed behaviorist, brought behaviorism to America
suggested all behavior could be understood as conditioned reflexes
Watson
Thorndike
research emphasized the events & consequences that follow behavior
first to systematically study operant behavior (trial and error learning)
Thorndike
created by Thorndike
law of effect, puzzle boxes
Skinner
first real behaviorist to think that thoughts/feelings were important
remote causation
current status of some system is brought about or caused by the long term interactions between the system and the universe of which it is a part
immediate causation
an event (X) immediately preceding some occurrence (Y) is said to cause it if the event produces or results in the occurrence
establishing operation
motivation, makes reinforcer effective
any change in the environment that laters the effectiveness of some stimulus and alters the momentary frequency of the behavior that has been followed by that reinforcement
establishing operation
dependent variable
what you measure; effect; measure of behavior in an organism
independent variable
what you manipulate, change, or control; cause; change in the contingencies of reinforcement
function
relationship, describes how 2 things are related to each other
reinforcing stimulus
class of stimuli that all have same effect on behavior; increase probability of behavior that produces it
single subject designs
research that is concerned with discovering principles and conditions that govern the behavior of single or individual organisms
emphasize repeated demonstrations of experimental control; importance is placed on repetition
single subject designs
X variable=
independent variable
Y variable=
dependent variable
baseline
measure of behavior before the researcher introduces an environmental change
phylogenetic behavior
behavior relations that are based on the genetic endowment of an organism
behavior that aids in survival or procreation; often unlearned behaviors
phylogenetic behavior
fixed action pattern
sequences of behavior that are phylogenetic in origin
dependent on releasing stimulus and once started, cannot be stopped
fixed action pattern
reaction chains
phylogenetic sequences of behavior that requires an environmental stimulus to set off behavior that produces the next set of stimuli that set off the next set of responses in the sequence
stimulus must be present the whole time
reaction chain
reflex
when an unconditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response
US -> UR
reflex
relationship between unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response
reflex
law of threshold
uncertainty region, where roughly 50% of the stimuli that are presented produce a response
law of intensity-magnitude
relationship between the intensity of the eliciting stimulus and the size or magnitude of the elicited response
law of latency
time between the onset of the eliciting stimulus and the appearance of the reflexive response
ontogenetic behavior
unique life history that contributes to behavior
selected at the level of the gene
phylogenetic behavior
selected at the level of the individual
ontogenetic behavior
respondent conditioning
process by which novel stimuli may enter the reflex relationship
when an organism responds to a new event based on a history of pairing with a biologically important stimulus
respondent conditioning
unconditioned stimulus
eliciting event for the reflex
unconditioned response
behavior elicited by the unconditioned stimulus