Upgrade to remove ads
Age of Reform
Terms in this set (94)
Before the Industrial Revolution, what system was used to produce goods?
What were the people who made the goods called?
How did a person become an artisan?
A boy would become an apprentice to an artisan. That boy would be given housing, food, clothes, and shelter by the artisan. The artisan would also teach the boy how to make the goods well.
What was the putting-out system?
A merchant would pay a family and supply the raw materials for that family to produce a good.
What was a benefit of the putting-out system?
Goods were made faster and cheaper.
Where did the first Industrial Revolution begin?
England, in the late 18th century
What were 6 causes of the Industrial Revolution?
1) increased food production
2) growing population
3) growing demand for textiles and other goods
4) new power sources (coal/steam)
5) new technologies
6) strong, stable governments (to promote it)
What were 6 immediate effects of the Industrial Revolution?
1) rise of factories
2) new transport and communication methods
4) new methods of production
5) new ways of life
6) reform movements including liberalism, socialism, and Marxism
What were 8 long term effects of the Industrial Revolution?
1) growth of labor unions
2) more inexpensive products
3) large corporations and new business practices
4) more public education
5) more middle class
6) competition among industrialized nations
7) progress in medical care and nutrition
8) women's movements
Who is known as the father of the American Industrial Revolution and why?
Samuel Slater. He brought spinning machines from England to the US, and he set up the first spinning factory in America in 1793.
In 1814, what did Francis Cabot Lowell and partners do on the Charles River?
They set up a textile mill.
What was unique about Lowell's mill?
It was the first mill where all the steps could be done in one building.
In 1822, what mill town was set up on the Merrimack River?
What percent of the workforce were women?
Why did young women decide to work at the Lowell mills?
support their family and earn wages
What were two important inventions of Eli Whitney?
interchangeable parts and the cotton gin
What were the effects of interchangeable parts?
Repairs were easier to make and lower-paid workers could be used.
What were the effects of the cotton gin?
Seeds were taken out of cotton much quicker, and the need for slaves went up.
Why was the invention of the steamboat and the telegraph important?
The steamboat allowed people to travel upstream, trade with farther places, and move goods quicker. The telegraph could send messages quickly.
What were three inventions that helped make cotton and clothing easier?
1) John Deere's plow
2) Cyrus McCormick's reaper
3) sewing machine
In what 3 ways did the Apprentice System differ from mass production?
1) In the apprentice system, people worked in the own homes on their own schedule. In mass production, people worked in factories on a tight schedule under a boss.
2) Goods were high quality and custom made but more expensive in the apprentice system.
3) People in the factories received little pay. Conditions were horrible. They also had to pay for the things they need. In the apprentice system, people traded locally.
What happened when large manufacturers competed with small artisan shops?
The artisans went out of business due to high prices and lesser amount of goods produced.
What were five social changes that occurred due to the Industrial Rev?
1) growth of cities
2) improved status of women
3) population increase
4) economic insecurity
5) urban slums
Why did factories hire women and children?
They could be employed for lower wages.
What did the hiring of women mean for them?
Before industrialization, women could not be single and live on their own, but now they can. They realized that they can fight for their rights.
What three classes formed as a result of the Industrial Revolution?
upper, middle, working
What four things did the upper and middle classes not like about the working class?
1) rising of saloons
2) organized religion declined
3) urban poor increased
4) transients filled communities
What did the working class want?
rights and voice in government
What did the working class do to try to get them?
start the first labor strike in US history
Did the strike work?
What did the problems of the Industrial Revolution cause?
2nd Great Awakening
What is the 2nd Great Awakening?
It was a series of religious revivals between 1790 and 1850.
What were four beliefs of 2nd Great Awakening?
1) anyone can get salvation if they try hard enough
2) all men are equal
3) strong work ethic, frugality, and temperance
4) ability to move in social ladder
Why was Calvinism challenged?
Calvinism believed predestination, but evangelism became the new thing
What was a religious effect caused by the 2nd Great Awakening?
Many schisms happened.
Where did the Awakening begin? Why?
South/southwest, it was a way to bring the community together
What were revival camps like?
Large amounts of people attended for days. Lay preachers gave speeches.
What were some characteristics of the lay preachers' speeches?
2) vernacular speech
3) refusal to condescend to the audience
4) criticism of elites
5) showed that people could think for themselves
What were some sects that formed during this time period?
methodists, baptists, mormons, disciples of christ, seventh-day adventists, shakers, presbyterian, millerites, fourierists, Africal methodist episcopal church
Who lead the Mormons?
What did Mormons believe?
followers could become "co-heirs" of Christ
Who lead the Shakers?
Mother Ann Lee
What 5 things did Shakers believe?
1) live together as a community
3) men and women equal
4) people should do physical labor
5) no owning personal property
Who lead the African Methodist Episcopal Church? Why?
Richard Allen. He started the church after being discriminated against by white Methodists.
What did the AME believe?
1) equality for all races
2) hope of salvation for African Americans
What is transcendentalism?
American literary, political, and philosophical movement
What did transcendentalists believe?
1) importance and efficacy of human striving
2) the unity rather than the trinity of God
Who were some transcendentalists?
Walden, Thoreau, Alcott, Emerson, Hawthorne
Why did Congregationalists lose members?
They needed a minister to function.
What were five different reforms caused by the 2nd Great Awakening?
temperance, asylum/prison reform, abolitionism, women's rights, education
In the early 1800s, what were 4 traits that women were expected to show?
1) piety (religious devotion) - purifying force of erring men
4) domesticity - do housework cheerfully!
What was especially hard for working class women?
They had 2 jobs: 1) their paying job (servant, factory worker) and 2) raising children
What was the education world like for women?
Women had few educational opportunities. Some of them were able to get jobs as teachers, but they received less pay than men.
What was the legal status of women in the early 1800s?
Women had little rights. Women had little rights to property; all of her property belonged to her husband. Women could not sue, make a will, & enter a contract without her husband's consent. Women could also be restrained by their husbands. However, divorces were possible.
What were 3 things that allowed the women's rights reform to take place?
1) democratic spirit of Jacksonian period
2) women working in factories
3) the other reform movements
What other reform movements did women become active leaders in?
temperance, abolition, asylum
How did education and jobs for women change in the women's rights reform?
Some colleges like Oberlin began accepting women. Schools for women were also created (Mount Holyoke being the 1st one). Women were also allowed to be doctors and ministers.
Name four women's rights leaders.
1) Elizabeth Cady Stanton
2) Lucretia Mott
3) Lucy Stone
4) Susan B. Anthony
What was the goal of the women's rights leaders?
make political, social, and economic status equal for men and women
What was the purpose of the Seneca Falls Convention?
discuss social, civil, and religious rights of women and fight for equality
What led to the creation of the Seneca Falls Convention?
Stanton and Mott were refused permission to speak at an anti-slavery convention, so they created their own convention.
What document was signed at the Seneca Falls Convention? What did it say?
Declaration of Sentiments. It was about how women were unequal to men and possible solutions
Who were the Grimke sisters?
They were members of a slaveholding family who went to the North to speak about the horrors of slavery.
What is the first state that allow women to vote?
Why did people drink?
relieve stress, they also did it at every event such as signing a contract or playing a game of cards
What ethnic group brought whisky-making over to the US?
Initially, why were people encouraged to drink alcohol?
Water in urban areas could be very dirty. So many people began to drink that the distilling industry became a big part of the economy.
What were 4 reasons as to why the temperance movement got started?
1) Whisky becomes popular drink in 1815. It's stronger than what they used to drink.
2) men were being violent towards families
3) families didn't get money for food
4) Panic of 1837
What were some temperance societies?
American Society for the Promotion of Temperance, Washington Temperance Society, Martha Washington Society
In what 4 ways did these temperance societies help reduce the amount of drinking?
1) people took pledges
3) group pressure
4) women pushed men to reduce drinking
What were two different methods that were proposed to end slavery?
What did gradualists believe about slavery?
It's immoral and an economic problem.
How did gradualists want to remove slavery?
slowly and through legal methods. They founded Liberia and returned slaves back to Africa.
Did gradualists think that slave owners should receive compensation?
yes, paid for by the government
What did gradualists think about immediatism?
Immediatism would lead to violence, and the Southern economy (and Northern) would be destroyed.
What did immediatists believe about slavery?
It was a religious and moral duty to get rid of it.
How did immediatists want to remove slavery?
Violence might be necessary, and laws may need to be broken.
Did immediatists think that slave owners should be compensated?
In the end, were slaves freed through gradualism or immediatism?
immediatism (Civil War)
Name 8 important people in the anti-slavery movement.
William Lloyd Garrison, David Walker, Maria Stewart, Nat Turner, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Harriet Tubman
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
He was a strong immediatism supporter who founded the paper called the Liberator.
What did David Walker write?
He wrote Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, which was about fighting for freedom. It was distributed to the South, and he was then killed.
Who was Maria Stewart?
America's first black woman political writer
What was Nat Turner's Rebellion?
On 8/22/1831, Turner and 70 armed slaves/free blacks killed 55-60 slaveowners.
What resulted from Nat Turner's Rebellion?
Laws controlling blacks were strengthened.
Who was Frederick Douglass?
He was the most photographed man in the 19th century who founded the North Star.
Who was Sojourner Truth?
African-American women's right activist who wrote the Narratives of Sojourner Truth
What did Harriet Beecher Stowe write?
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Who was Harriet Tubman?
She was a former slave who helped over 300 slaves escape through the Underground Railroad. She was also a Civil War spy for the Union.
What were 5 arguments from slave owners claiming that slavery should exist?
1) Slaves need owners to look after them.
2) Bible supported slavery.
3) Slaves helped maintain the American economy.
4) Abolition could lead to slave revolt.
5) Interracial marriage (which slave owners didn't like) could happen.
Who started the asylum movement?
evangelist Dorothea Dix
What did Dorothea Dix do?
She investigated how terribly the insane were being treated, which caused humane institutions to be created.
How were prisons being reformed?
Prisons tried to rehabilitate prisoners.
What laws were being changed for humane treatment?
1) less crimes came with the death penalty
2) public hangings were abolished
3) flogging and other cruel punishments abolished
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Antebellum & Civil War
Four Migrations from England to America
The Amendments (and only amendments in this set)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Unit 5 Test APUSH
The Age of Reform
History 72 A
Through Women's Eyes: chapter 1-6, midterm
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chinese Schools of Thought
Post 1920 Final
American History Post-1920 Midterm