-persons age 65 or older
-persons age 2-64 with a long term health problem (e.g. chronic cardiovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus)
-persons age 19-64 who smoke cigs or have asthma
-persons age 2-64 who have a disease or condition that lowers the body's resistance to infection (e.g. hodgkin's disease, leukemia, lymphoma, kidney failure, sickle cell disease, HIV infection, nephrotic syndrome, those receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy or long-term steroids; asplenia, and after organ or bone marrow transplantation).
-persons age 19-64 living in special environments or social settings such as chronic care facilities.
tachypnea, pharyngitis, asymmetric chest movements or retraction, decreased excursion, nasal flaring, use of accessory muscles (neck, abdomen), grunting, crackles, friction rub on auscultation, dullness on percussion over consolidated areas, increased tactile fremitus on palpation, pink , rusty, purulent, green, yellow or white sputum (scant to copious) leukocytosis, abnormal ABGs with decreased or normal PaO2, decreased PaCo2, and increased pH initially, and later PaO2, and decreased pH, positive sputum gram stain and culture, patchy or diffuse infiltrates, abcesses, pleural effusion, or pneumothorax on CXR. -Heart Failure-the most common cause is Left sided HF
-Overhydration with IV fluids
-Hypoalbuminemia: nephroic syndrome, hepatic disease, nutritional disorders
-Altered capillary permeability of lungs: inhaled toxins, inflammation (e.g., pneumonia), severe hypoxia, near-drowning
-Malignancies of the lymph system
-Respiratory distress syndrome (e.g., Oxygen toxicity)
-Neurogenic condition, opiod overdose, reexpansion pulmonary edema, high altitude