49 terms

Chapter 25 APUSH

Good Neighbor Policy
Policy of Roosevelt's which led to the recall of US troops from Nicaragua and Haiti; supposed change in US interventionist policy in Latin America, which really represented no change in interests/involvement.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
Adolf Hitler
Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers' Party-the Nazi Party-in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II.
Munich Conference
1938-Meeting between British,French,and German leaders in which Germany was given control of the Sudetenland in exchange for German leader Hitler's promise to make no more claimes on European territory
Nye Committee hearings
Discussed the reasons and outcomes of the US's involvement in WWI<> resulted in many of the neutrality acts of the 1930s
Neutrality Acts
The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.
Non-Aggression Pact
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
Nuremberg Laws
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
St. Louis
boat from Germany with Jews on it that Us did not let land
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Henry Stimson
Secretary of War during War World II who trained 12 million soldiers and airmen, the purchase and transportation to battlefields of 30 percent of the nation's industrial output and agreed to the building of the atomic bomb and the decision to use it.
Wendell Willkie
the dark horse Republican Party nominee for the 1940 presidential election
Henry Wallace
A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season.
People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, opposed the League of Nations
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
describing an activist government and/or state that is involved in a wide range of political, economic, and social arenas
allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
a coordinated attack on Jewish people and their property, 91 Jews were murdered and 25,000 to 30,000 were arrested and placed in concentration camps. 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked.
the "final solution"
a plan devised in 1941 to speed up the killing- gas chambers were used and crematories to kill the Jews. Six of these were built and kept working round the clock
Atlantic Charter
Anglo-American declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war. Stated people of every nation should be free to choose their own form of government and live free of fear and want, disarmament, and a permanent system of general security.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
an appeal to Asians who wanted to rid thier land of European rule
Tripartite Pact
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
Hideki Tojo
This general was prime minister of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
James Byrnes
left the Supreme Court to head Roosevelt's Economic Stabilization Office, which dealt with the vitally important issues of prices and taxes. How powerful the new office would become depended entirely on Byrnes's political skills, and Washington insiders soon reported he was in full charge.
Office of War Mobilization
Federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during World War II
Smith Connally War Labor Disputes Act
allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production (in World War II). It also prohibited unions from making contributions in federal elections
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Research director of the development of the atomic bomb.
The Second Front
Stalin desired for US to create this, would distract Germans from the fighting in Russia, declined by FDR twice before D-Day
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
Operation Torch
begun Nov 1942, American forces landed in Morocco and Algeria, and pressing eastward trapped the German and Italian armies being driven westward by the British, forcing German and Italian troops to surrender, despite Hitler's orders to fight to the death.
Operation Overlord
The code name for the beginning plans of D-day and the invasion of France's coast
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Battle of Coral Sea
Fought on May 7-8 1942; Caused heavy losses on both sides; Japanese won a tactical victory because they sank US carrier Lexington; Americans claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Douglas MacArthur
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Rosie the Riveter
Advertising campaign character who encouraged women to take factory jobs
A. Philip Randolph
Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.
March on Washington Movement
1941- billions of federal dollars were flowing into the war industry jobs and blacks knew they would receive very little of these jobs and so they were planning on marching in Washington to protest. FDR expected riots so he promised them equal opportunity if they didn't march
Executive Order 8802
issued by FDR in June 1941, first presidential directive on race since Reconstruction, it prohibited discriminatory employment practices by federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work, and established the Far Employment Practices Commission to monitor compliance
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
Street gangs joined by Mexican- American teenagers. These were particularly distinctive because of their members' style of dress, which whites considered outrageous.
Los Angeles zoot-suit riot
June 3, 1943, a number of sailors claimed to have been beaten and robbed by Mexican pachucos. The following evening, a mob of about 200 sailors, tired of boredom and fired up with bigotry, hired a fleet of cabs and rolled into East Los Angeles to beat up and strip the clothing off any young Latino male they could find.
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay 20,000 to each survivor
Tehran conference
December, 1943, a meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace
Yalta conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Potsdam Declaration
Ultimatum from the Potsdam Conference that was issued by the United States, Great Britain and China to Japan offering that country the choice between unconditional surrender and total annihilation.