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Pysch 1101 Test 3
Terms in this set (57)
the linking of two events that occur close together
that is elicited as a function of the previous pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned or biologically relevant stimulus.
is a type of learning in which (a) the strength of a behavior is modified by the behavior's consequences
is the function based on how a person processes and reasons information.
the theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns
refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus.
initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention
a stimulus that naturally occurs.
a response that is learned and does not occur naturally
a natural response that isn't learned.
a stimulus that is added into the equation, and is unnaturally in the senario
is the initial learning of an association.
a response which is diminished or forgotten
the reappearance of a weakened response or to be the dissappearance of a once weakened response
the tendency to respond in the same way to different but similar stimuli.
____ in psychology, the ability to perceive and respond to differences among stimuli.
a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior commonly use for strengthening or weakening responses in animails
any event that rewards an act in hopes of strengthening it
adding a positive stimulus which strengthens a response.
removing a negative stimulus which strengthens a response
is a tool in operant conditioning that allows the trainer to control the timing and frequency of reinforcement in order to elicit a target behavior.
is given only part of the time a subject gives the desired response. It is often used instead of continuous reinforcement.
Fixed ratio (FR)
reinforcement will come after a set number of responses
variable ratio (VR)
schedules of reinforcement, the only thing that matters is that the behavior occurs a specific number of times.
fixed interval (FL)
Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed.
variable interval (VL)
a behavior is being reinforced on an inconsistent schedule.
Reinforcement over a seriesof accessible improved steps leading to a desired response.
a negative action to weaken a repnose
taking away something to weaken a response
adding something to weaken a response
the desire to a perform a behavior for its own sake
refers to behavior that is driven by external rewards such as money, fame, grades, and praise.
a mental representation of one's physical environment.
is a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned.
learning by watching others without direct experience. (also known as modeling)
a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another
relating to or denoting behavior that is positive, helpful, and intended to promote social acceptance and friendship.
learning that persists over time.
processing multiple things simultaneously
is the shortest-term element of memory It acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are retained accurately, but very briefly.
short term memory
is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state.
long term memory
is the stage of the dual memory model proposed by the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model, and informative knowledge can be stored.
is part of the visual memory system which also includes long-term memory and visual short-term memory.
is one of the sensory memory registers; a component of sensory memory (SM) that is specific to retaining auditory information.
is a term referring to the process of taking individual pieces of information and grouping them into larger units
it's a memory technique to help your brain better encode and recall important information.
is the phenomenon whereby learning is greater when studying is spread out over time, as opposed to studying the same amount of content in a single session.
is a way individuals process information according to the levels of processing theory developed by Craik and Lockhart.
involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. images, thinking, associations etc.)
s a part of the limbic system. The limbic system is the area in the brain that is associated with memory, emotions, and motivation. The limbic system is located just above the brain stem and below the cortex.
is a neurological process that involves gradually converting information from short-term memory into long-term memory.
flash bulb memories
is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid 'snapshot' of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard.
serial position effect
is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst. ... Among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items (the primacy effect).
is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event
is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.
Consolidation is the neurological and psychological process whereby "memories" are created. Neurologically, a memory is consolidated when it is moved from the labile "short term" storage into permanent long term storage in the physical structures of the human brain.
is the inability to remember where, when or how previously learned information has been acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge.
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