35 terms

Our World Unit 2 Chapter 9

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Arabia
A huge peninsula in southwestern Asia. To the east is the Persian Gulf, to the south is the Arabian Sea and to the west is the Red Sea.
Red Sea
A long, narrow body of water that almost completely separates Arabia from Africa.
Jabal al Hijaz
Mountains along Arabia's west coast. This is one of the few places in Arabia with enough rainfall to make agriculture possible. Its southern region may receive from 20 to 40 inches of rain a year.
Rub' al Khali
Also known as the "Empty Quarter", it is the largest desert in Arabia. It is located in the southern part of the peninsula.
oases
Places in the desert that are watered by underground streams. Some are large enough to support large villages.
Jazirat al-Arab
The name of the Arabian peninsula. It means "Island of the Arabs"
Petra
A city built by the Nabataeans around 300 B.C.. It had a large supply of water brought there by aqueducts. It became an important stop on the trade route between the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. This trade made the city both rich and very busy.
caravan
A group of people and animals that travel together. These traveled many trade routes throughout Arabia and to cities in the Fertile Crescent and Egypt. With camels, they could travel 3 miles per hour and about 30 miles in a day.
Bedouins
A group of people who traded in Arabia. Their name means "people of the desert".
Muhammad
Born in the city of Mecca and orphaned as a boy, he was raised by an uncle, who was a trader. Eventually he married a wealthy widow and spent time devoting himself to religion. When he was 40, he had a vision in a cave while he was praying. In his vision, an angel told him that he was a prophet of Allah. He founded the religion of Islam.
Mecca
An oasis city where Muhammad was born and where Muslims make a pilgrimage to at least once in their lifetimes.
Khadija
The wealthy widow Muhammad worked for and eventually married.
Islam
The religion formed by Muhammad after his vision in the cave.
Muslim
A person who believes in Islam.
Kaaba
Mecca's square-shaped temple. It is the Arabic word for "cube". It houses a sacred black stone that honored the gods and goddesses worshiped by the people of Mecca.
Medina
A city 200 miles north of Mecca where Muhammad fled after the leaders of Mecca were angry with him.
hijra
Arabic for migration
Mosque
A building where Muslims worship.
Quran
Written by Muhammad's followers, this book contains his teachings and became the holy book of Islam.
Five Pillars
The five basic duties of all Muslims.
hajj
A journey by a Muslim to visit Mecca at least once in their lives.
pilgrimage
A journey for religions purposes.
caliphs
Successors to the Prophet Muhammad.
caliphate
Lands ruled by the caliphs
Cordoba
In present-day Spain, this is where Muslims originally established their capital city. It became a center of Muslim culture.
al-Mansur
A Muslim ruler who decided to build a capital city on the Tigris River in what is today Iraq.
Baghdad
The capital city built by al-Mansur. It became the center of Muslim's greatest achievements in science, art and architecture. The caliphs built a huge library called the House of Wisdom.
Muhammad al-Razi
Known as Rhazes in Europe, he was a Muslim medical scientist who published a huge medical encyclopedia to teach doctors how to treat many illnesses.
Iben Sina
Known as Avicenna in Latin, he wrote a large medical text that was used by medical students in Europe for 600 years.
al-jabr
A branch of mathematics developed by Muslim scholars.
astrolabe
A Greek instrument used to find a person's position from the stars.
arabesques
Flowing, lacy ornaments often intertwined with leafy forms and vines.
calligraphy
Beautiful handwriting
minarets
Tall slender towers with balconies from which religious leaders called Muslims to prayer.
The Arabian Nights
A story based on folk tales from Persia, India and Arabia. In the book, a princess saves herself from death by telling her husband, the king, a different story each night for a thousand and one nights.