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Terms in this set (70)
Factors: natural resources-coal, iron, timber, petroleum, water power
Abundant labor (mass immigration)
U.S. largest free trade market in the world perpetuated by telegraph, telephone, railroads, etc
Dramatically affected economic and social life. Advantages: more direct routes, greater speed, greater safety and comfort, reliable, etc. Often crated the very towns they then served and would link widely separated cities and villages (network put into place). Made possible a national market.
Building railroad empire
American and european investors provided some of the money; gov supplied the rest (local gov gave railroad companies $300 million, and state gov added $228 million more. Fed gov also gave nearly $65 million.
Not very well planned out- designed more to protect local interests with many extending less than 50 miles. Used different gauges. Gauges-distance between the rails, ranged in size. Without special equipment, trains of one gauge could not run on tracks of another
"Commodore"- a crusty old multimillionaire from the shipping business and owner of the NY Central Railroad. Merged the NY Central railroad with other lines to provide a track from NYC to Buffalo and Chicago. When he died his Central operated more than 4500 miles of track.
Four great trunk lines
Baltimore and Ohio, Erie railroad, NY central railroad, and Penn railroad
Lavish sleeping cars which became popular- represented the new railroads which brought greater comfort, safety, and speed
Union pacific railroad build westward and the central pacific railroad to build eastward. Chinese laborers worked best and many hired to work on the railroad. Not given deserved credit. Dodge served as the chief for the Union Pacific while Crocker led the Central Pacific.
Point in Utah where the two railroad lines met linking the two railroads together (with a golden spike)
Jay Gould would lay lines down forcing rival companies to buy them at inflated prices.
Corrupt business in which stock distributed in excess of the real value of the assets (false representation)
Severe among the rival lines which utilized various methods to surpass one another
Deduction or discount-special rates offered for various situations.
Sharing traffic (level the playing field?)
Not followed-individuals did not keep their word
Tried to build self-sustaining systems that dominated entire regions. Due to economic panic, many railroads were bankrupt. (Merge railroad lines?)
J Pierpont Morgan
Head of NY investment house of J.P Morgan and Company took lead at imposing order on the railroad industry. Hated "wasteful competition" and arranged a traffic-sharing agreement and collected a million-dollar fee. Eliminated rebates and competition, and maintained control. "Morganized southern railroads- created an efficient national transportation network
Permitted construction of longer bridges, taller buildings, stronger railroad track, deadlier weapons, faster ships, etc. Mass production of steel was a huge boom in industry
Center of industry
Competition in steel industry
Similar to that of the railroad industry- fierce competition for business via secret agreements, pools, and consolidation
Steel companies moved toward this organization in which a single company owns and controls the entire process
Buying out companies or merging industries that produce similar products such as buying or taking over competing industries.
Exemplifies the concept of self-made man. Came to the U.S from Scotland and worked his way to the top. Plunged into the steel industry. Utilizing warmth and salesmanship, he attracted able partners and subordinates such as Henry Clay Frick and Charles M. Schwab. Nonetheless he kept the wages of the laborers in his mills low and disliked unions. Carnegie steel in 1900 profited $40 million and produced more steel than GB alone. Eventually sold his company believing that wealth brought social obligations. (worked with thomas scott of the Penn railroad). Believed in gospel of wealth and devoted the second half of his life to philanthropy
Created by Morgan which absorbed more than 200 other companies, employed 168,000 people, and produced 9 million tons of iron and steel a year. Controlled 3/5ths of the country's steel business.
Mostly after 1900, growing rise and importance of petroleum. Lubricated the machinery of the industrial age. "Black gold fever" struck after Edwin drake drilled first oil well
John D. Rockefeller
Built the standard oil company. Believer in efficiency and consolidation. Wanted to revolutionize the oil industry such as in the refining of oil (due to the amount of wasteful methods utilized at the time). At the end, Rockefeller triumphed over his competitors by marketing products of high quality at the lowest unit cost. However he also threatened rivals and bribed politicians and employed spies to harass the customers of competing refiners.
Model for the industry
Standard Oil Trust- board of nine trustees empowered to hold, control, and manage all Standard OIl's properties-competition disappeared, profits soared, and sparked a trust movement throughout nation
Rockefeller retirement profit
Retired in 1897 with a fortune of nearly $900 million-gave a lot of his money to philanthropic causes
George Eastman- Kodak camera, Alexander Bell invented the telephone, Thomas Edison- improved telegraph, sparked creation of electricity and prompted the existence of power stations,
Revolution in marketing
Advertisement and marketing widespread-also "chain store" popularity. Brought american of all varieties in the national market.
racial and ethnic differences aside, society became a community of consumers surrounded by goods unavailable in prior years.
Grueling and dangerous working conditions.
Women became a majority of the workers, a small number of men took the management roles, and most men left for other jobs (within feminized jobs such as nurses, school teachers, and librarians)
Status and pay divided unequally between men and women. Adults made more than children, skilled more than unskilled, native born more than foreign born, Protestants more than Catholics or Jews, and whites more than asians or blacks. On average women earned a little more than half as much as men.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Prohibiting the immigration of Chinese workers for ten years
Industrial age-work culture
Men and women not accustomed to new working conditions. Worked indoors rather than out, paced themselves to the clock, had supervisors, etc. Workers more and more impersonal and distant
Brought inexpensive illumination into almost every home
Rags to riches story- American dream
Significant effect on society which instilled hope for factory workers enabling them to move up in social position in society
William H. Sylvis-National Labor Union
Sought long-range humanitarian reforms.
Terence V. Powderly- Knights of Labor
Utopian like goals- universal membership (no restrictions). Believed workers should not strike
Holden v. Hardy
Limiting working hours for mining
Lochner v. NY
Forcing bakery workers to work longer hours
Turned public sympathy toward unions
Organized only skilled workers, restricted membership, and adopted a pragmatic approach to labor's needs. Agreed to not oppose monopolies and trusts so long as obtain fair wages.
Federal troops crushed a strike of silver miners in Idaho and strikes to utilize Pinkertown detectives to drive off the protestors. The protestors ending up forcing the Pinkertowns to surrender but eventually were defeated.
Shut down entry into NYC which caused railroad companies to shut down
Often would lay down railroad lines in order to force a rival company to buy it at inflated prices. Stereotypical robber baron who was only in the industry for the money. He also stock watered and could never keep a consistent job
George westinghouse vs. Edison
Edison based his system on low voltage direct current which could be transmitted only 2 miles while westinghouse demonstrated the advantages of high voltage alternating current for transmission over great distances. Formed the Westinghouse Electric Company and developed an alternating current motor that could convert electricity into mechanical power.
Business/ advertisement leader in tobacco
Department store in Chicago
Sears, Roebuck, and Montgomery Ward
Sold to rural costumers through mail catalogs/ mail order business
Quintessential example of the self made man ideal
Average worker salary
$400- $500 a year (it took around $600 for a family to live decently)
Extremely populated with children... boys paid more than girls but significantly less than adults
Pay usually divided unequally between men and women-many of both sexes thought a woman's place was in the home...on average women made a little more than half as much as men
Blacks in workforce
Usually last hired and first fired
Chinese Exclusion Act
Prohibited the immigration of Chinese workers for ten years.
Adjustments to factory life
Worked indoors rather than outdoors, paced themselves to the clock rather than the sun, had supervisors, and strict rules. Work also more impersonal and robotic
1/4 of manual laborers rose to middle class status and working class children were even more likely to move up ladder (instilled American dream ideal.)
Noble and Holy Order of Knights of Labor
Founded by Uriah S. Steven as a secret fraternal order which eventually grew until Terence Powderly ended the secrecy and embarked on an aggressive recruitment project. Wanted to unite all labor welcoming all of humanity to join the organization. It organized women workers and had 60,000 black members. Maintained that workers should not strike. Platform included the 8 hour day and abolition of chill labor but most clearly focused on utopian reform. Eventually lost its steam and nearly all of its members.
Loose alliance of national craft unions organizing only skilled workers and avoiding politics. Samuel Gompers was the founder and longtime president. Adopted a pragmatic approach to labor's needs. AFL more confrontational utilizing the strike, boycott, but only to achieve limited gains. (agreed to not oppose monopolies if obtaining fair wages). By 1914 hold almost 2 million members. Largely a man's world though.
Iran law of wages
Supply and demand, not the welfare of their workers, dictated wages
Holden v Hardy
Court upheld a law limiting working hours for miners because their work was too dangerous and long hours might increase injuries
Lochner v. NY
Struck down a law limiting bakery workers to a sixty hour week and ten hour day because of the fact that baking was safer than mining.
Haymarket Square Riot
3,000 people protest that was at first peaceful until police told people to leave and someone threw a dynamite bomb that instantly killed 1 policemen and wounded 6 other. Police fired into the crowd and killed 4 people.
Created to curb social turmoil
Workers surrounded the Homestead steel plant and resisted efforts from Pinkerton detectives (who in reality were unskilled workers).
Noting a criminal or certain record of an employee and not hiring them as a result of his history
Court injunctions/ use of troops
Tactics utilized to try to strike peace
Iron clad oaths/ yellow dog contracts
Agreement between an employee and employer in which the employee agrees to not be in a labor union
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