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AP world Ch. 27
Terms in this set (21)
Alliance among RUssia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed by most conservative monarchies of Europe during the Congress of Vienna.
Unsuccessful 1825 political revolt in Russia by mid-level army officers advocating reforms
Crimean War (1854- 1856)
Began with Russian attack on the Ottoman Empire; France and Britain joined the Ottoman side; resulted in a Russian defeat because of Western industrial might; led to Russian reforms under Alexander II
Emancipation of the serfs
Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained
local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave the middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy
Constructed during the 1870s and 1880s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; increased the Russian role in Asia.
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in Russian political and economic systems; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West.
Political groups that thought the abolition of formal government was a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world's first terrorist movement.
Russian Marxist leader; insisted on the importance of disciplined revolutionary cells.
Literally meaning 'majority' party, but actually a political group backed by a minority of the population; and the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.
Russian Revolution of 1905
Defeat by Japan resulted in strikes by urban workers and insurrections among the peasantry; resulted in temporary reforms.
Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms after the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.
Agricultural entrepreneurs who used the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.
Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by the middle of the 19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside the West.
Studies of Western science ad technology beginning during the 18th century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.
American naval officer, in 1853 insisted under the threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.
Power of the emperor restored with Emperor Mutsuhito in 1868; took name of Meiji, the Enlightened One; ended shogunate and began a reform period.
Japanese parliament established as part of the constitution of 1889; able to advise government but not control it.
Huge industrial combines created in Japan during the 1890's
Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
Fought in Korea between Japan and China; Japanese victory demonstrated its arrival as new industrial power.
Western term for perceived threat from Japanese imperialism.
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