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74 terms

kidney

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urinary bladder
is a saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted
nephrons
the functional units of the kidney
filtration
passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove waste
glomerulus
is a small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of the nephron by a hollow cup shaped structure called Bowman's Capsule
reabsorption
the process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel
loop of henle
is a section of the nephron tubule in which water is conserved and the volume of urine minimized
lungs
remove co2
skin
excretes excess water and salts and small amounts of urea in the form of sweat.
aldosterone
regulates na+, k+ levels in blood. Important for fluid balance
ACTH
released by the brain. triggers release of cortisol from adrenal gland. antistress hormones
adrenaline
increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate.fight or flight sndrone
kidney
filters the blood of waste, makes urine
renal artery
brings o2 blood to kidneys
renal vein
takes co2 blood out of kidneys
ureter
long tubes, bring urine to bladder
bladder
sac that stores urine
urethra
the tube where urine exits the body. long in males, short in females
cortex
outer part of kidney
renal medulla
inner part of kidney
papilla
tubes that bring urine from all nephrons to center of kidney
renal pelvis
center of kidney where urine collects
efferent arteriole
blood leaving the gloeruluse for exit
renal arteriole
branch off of renal artery brings o2 blood to nephrons
afferent arteriole
brings o2 blood from the renal arteriole into glomerulus
renal venual
taking co2 blood out of nephron joins up with renal vein
collecting duct
tube where urine leaves nephron and flows to papilla
glomerulus
dense ball of capillaries. site of filteration
Bowmans Capsule
cap shaped collection tube. Collects filtrate. (stuff that leaves blood)
distal tubule
part of tubule. Helps regulate PH
peritubular capillaries
bed of capillaries. Supply nephron with o2. reabsorb useful things originally filtered out
proximal tubules
1st part of tubule where most useful thing reabsorbed back into blood
ammonia
made by the break down of amino acids and nucleotides. toxic to mammals. In fish waste primarily
urea
mammals primary form of waste. nontoxic. does not affect cellular respiration
uric acid
formed naturally in the breakdown of nucleotides.insoluble in water. primary for of waste in birds and reptiles.
creatinine
creatinine phosphate is a source of rapid ATP production in muscles. by passes cellular respiration
nephron
microscopic units in the kidney that filter the blood produce urine
the flow in/out of nephron
renal arteriole, afferent arteriole, glomerulus,efferent arteriole,peritubular capillaries, renal venule
secretion
hormones and drugs are actively transported out of blood and into nephron tubule for elimination.This is why drug testing works
excretion
final urine is made at distal tubule. Leaves through collecting duct.
the flow of excretion
collecting duct, papilla, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra, toilet
gout
buildup of uric acid crystals in the blood due to genetics and over of meat.
cystitis
bacteria enter the bladder through the urethra and irritate the lining of the bladder and infect the nephrons
nephritis
bacteria travel to the kidney from the bladder and infect the nephrons
kidney stones
crystal of calcium or uric acid in the kidney
uremia
buildup of poisons in the blood due to poorly functioning kidneys
kidney failure
kidneys stop working due to bleeding, blockage, tissue death
hypertension
genetic, diet, disease, or stress related disorder that increases pressure in the blood vessels.
flow of filtrate through nephron
Bowmans Capsule, proximal tube, loop of henle,distal tubule,collecting duct, papilla, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder,urethra
kidney functions
filters the blood of waste, maintain the blood ph, and regulation of water balance.regulates osmolarity of blood (amount of dissolved solutes)
inferior vena cava
blood leaves kidney area and goes back to heart
dorsal aorta
oxygenated blood to kidney area
adrenal gland
endocrine organs. release hormones into blood stream
filtrate
materials that are filtered from the blood.
What does filtrate contain
water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids and some vitamins.
What remains in the blood
the plasma proteins cells and platelets to large to pass through the capillary walls
what filtered materials are reabsorbed by the blood in the kidneys
amino acids fats and glucose.
liver
bile(dead red blood cells salts and cholestrol. converts to amino acids to other useful compounds into urea
large intestine
undigested material
how many nephrons does a kidney have
1 milion
how long is each tube length
nearly 50 miles
what is each nephron composed of
a duct system and blood vessels
the duct system contains
tubules for the filtrate/urine
what is made by the kidney when blood is filtered from waste
urine
how much liquid does the average adult take in daily
2300 ml
how much urine does the average adult release daily
1500 ml
range of urine produced
500 ml
how often is the blood in your body fully filtered
every 45 minutes
ingredients of urine per 1 liter
95% water, 20 grams urea, 1- 2 gs ammonia, 1-2 gs uric acid, 1-2 gs creatine
types of waste in urine
ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine
nitrogenous waste
wastes in urine
the 4 steps of urine production
filtration, reabsorption, secretion, excretion
ADH
Antidiuretic hormone
how does ADH control the excretory system
controls the amount of h2o in your urine; controls osmolarity of your blood; act on the collecting duct nephron; makes water leave the collecting duct and re enter blood when you are dehydrated
what inhibits the h2o release
stress, anxiety, fear, and caffeine.