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What is 1 + 3?
is a saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted
the functional units of the kidney
passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove waste
is a small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of the nephron by a hollow cup shaped structure called Bowman's Capsule
the process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel
loop of henle
is a section of the nephron tubule in which water is conserved and the volume of urine minimized
excretes excess water and salts and small amounts of urea in the form of sweat.
regulates na+, k+ levels in blood. Important for fluid balance
released by the brain. triggers release of cortisol from adrenal gland. antistress hormones
increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate.fight or flight sndrone
filters the blood of waste, makes urine
brings o2 blood to kidneys
takes co2 blood out of kidneys
long tubes, bring urine to bladder
sac that stores urine
the tube where urine exits the body. long in males, short in females
outer part of kidney
inner part of kidney
tubes that bring urine from all nephrons to center of kidney
center of kidney where urine collects
blood leaving the gloeruluse for exit
branch off of renal artery brings o2 blood to nephrons
brings o2 blood from the renal arteriole into glomerulus
taking co2 blood out of nephron joins up with renal vein
tube where urine leaves nephron and flows to papilla
dense ball of capillaries. site of filteration
cap shaped collection tube. Collects filtrate. (stuff that leaves blood)
part of tubule. Helps regulate PH
bed of capillaries. Supply nephron with o2. reabsorb useful things originally filtered out
1st part of tubule where most useful thing reabsorbed back into blood
made by the break down of amino acids and nucleotides. toxic to mammals. In fish waste primarily
mammals primary form of waste. nontoxic. does not affect cellular respiration
formed naturally in the breakdown of nucleotides.insoluble in water. primary for of waste in birds and reptiles.
creatinine phosphate is a source of rapid ATP production in muscles. by passes cellular respiration
microscopic units in the kidney that filter the blood produce urine
the flow in/out of nephron
renal arteriole, afferent arteriole, glomerulus,efferent arteriole,peritubular capillaries, renal venule
hormones and drugs are actively transported out of blood and into nephron tubule for elimination.This is why drug testing works
final urine is made at distal tubule. Leaves through collecting duct.
the flow of excretion
collecting duct, papilla, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra, toilet
buildup of uric acid crystals in the blood due to genetics and over of meat.
bacteria enter the bladder through the urethra and irritate the lining of the bladder and infect the nephrons
bacteria travel to the kidney from the bladder and infect the nephrons
crystal of calcium or uric acid in the kidney
buildup of poisons in the blood due to poorly functioning kidneys
kidneys stop working due to bleeding, blockage, tissue death
genetic, diet, disease, or stress related disorder that increases pressure in the blood vessels.
flow of filtrate through nephron
Bowmans Capsule, proximal tube, loop of henle,distal tubule,collecting duct, papilla, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder,urethra
filters the blood of waste, maintain the blood ph, and regulation of water balance.regulates osmolarity of blood (amount of dissolved solutes)
inferior vena cava
blood leaves kidney area and goes back to heart
oxygenated blood to kidney area
endocrine organs. release hormones into blood stream
materials that are filtered from the blood.
What does filtrate contain
water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids and some vitamins.
What remains in the blood
the plasma proteins cells and platelets to large to pass through the capillary walls
what filtered materials are reabsorbed by the blood in the kidneys
amino acids fats and glucose.
bile(dead red blood cells salts and cholestrol. converts to amino acids to other useful compounds into urea
how many nephrons does a kidney have
how long is each tube length
nearly 50 miles
what is each nephron composed of
a duct system and blood vessels
the duct system contains
tubules for the filtrate/urine
what is made by the kidney when blood is filtered from waste
how much liquid does the average adult take in daily
how much urine does the average adult release daily
range of urine produced
how often is the blood in your body fully filtered
every 45 minutes
ingredients of urine per 1 liter
95% water, 20 grams urea, 1- 2 gs ammonia, 1-2 gs uric acid, 1-2 gs creatine
types of waste in urine
ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine
wastes in urine
the 4 steps of urine production
filtration, reabsorption, secretion, excretion
how does ADH control the excretory system
controls the amount of h2o in your urine; controls osmolarity of your blood; act on the collecting duct nephron; makes water leave the collecting duct and re enter blood when you are dehydrated
what inhibits the h2o release
stress, anxiety, fear, and caffeine.