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urinary bladder

is a saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted


the functional units of the kidney


passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove waste


is a small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of the nephron by a hollow cup shaped structure called Bowman's Capsule


the process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel

loop of henle

is a section of the nephron tubule in which water is conserved and the volume of urine minimized


remove co2


excretes excess water and salts and small amounts of urea in the form of sweat.


regulates na+, k+ levels in blood. Important for fluid balance


released by the brain. triggers release of cortisol from adrenal gland. antistress hormones


increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate.fight or flight sndrone


filters the blood of waste, makes urine

renal artery

brings o2 blood to kidneys

renal vein

takes co2 blood out of kidneys


long tubes, bring urine to bladder


sac that stores urine


the tube where urine exits the body. long in males, short in females


outer part of kidney

renal medulla

inner part of kidney


tubes that bring urine from all nephrons to center of kidney

renal pelvis

center of kidney where urine collects

efferent arteriole

blood leaving the gloeruluse for exit

renal arteriole

branch off of renal artery brings o2 blood to nephrons

afferent arteriole

brings o2 blood from the renal arteriole into glomerulus

renal venual

taking co2 blood out of nephron joins up with renal vein

collecting duct

tube where urine leaves nephron and flows to papilla


dense ball of capillaries. site of filteration

Bowmans Capsule

cap shaped collection tube. Collects filtrate. (stuff that leaves blood)

distal tubule

part of tubule. Helps regulate PH

peritubular capillaries

bed of capillaries. Supply nephron with o2. reabsorb useful things originally filtered out

proximal tubules

1st part of tubule where most useful thing reabsorbed back into blood


made by the break down of amino acids and nucleotides. toxic to mammals. In fish waste primarily


mammals primary form of waste. nontoxic. does not affect cellular respiration

uric acid

formed naturally in the breakdown of nucleotides.insoluble in water. primary for of waste in birds and reptiles.


creatinine phosphate is a source of rapid ATP production in muscles. by passes cellular respiration


microscopic units in the kidney that filter the blood produce urine

the flow in/out of nephron

renal arteriole, afferent arteriole, glomerulus,efferent arteriole,peritubular capillaries, renal venule


hormones and drugs are actively transported out of blood and into nephron tubule for elimination.This is why drug testing works


final urine is made at distal tubule. Leaves through collecting duct.

the flow of excretion

collecting duct, papilla, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra, toilet


buildup of uric acid crystals in the blood due to genetics and over of meat.


bacteria enter the bladder through the urethra and irritate the lining of the bladder and infect the nephrons


bacteria travel to the kidney from the bladder and infect the nephrons

kidney stones

crystal of calcium or uric acid in the kidney


buildup of poisons in the blood due to poorly functioning kidneys

kidney failure

kidneys stop working due to bleeding, blockage, tissue death


genetic, diet, disease, or stress related disorder that increases pressure in the blood vessels.

flow of filtrate through nephron

Bowmans Capsule, proximal tube, loop of henle,distal tubule,collecting duct, papilla, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder,urethra

kidney functions

filters the blood of waste, maintain the blood ph, and regulation of water balance.regulates osmolarity of blood (amount of dissolved solutes)

inferior vena cava

blood leaves kidney area and goes back to heart

dorsal aorta

oxygenated blood to kidney area

adrenal gland

endocrine organs. release hormones into blood stream


materials that are filtered from the blood.

What does filtrate contain

water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids and some vitamins.

What remains in the blood

the plasma proteins cells and platelets to large to pass through the capillary walls

what filtered materials are reabsorbed by the blood in the kidneys

amino acids fats and glucose.


bile(dead red blood cells salts and cholestrol. converts to amino acids to other useful compounds into urea

large intestine

undigested material

how many nephrons does a kidney have

1 milion

how long is each tube length

nearly 50 miles

what is each nephron composed of

a duct system and blood vessels

the duct system contains

tubules for the filtrate/urine

what is made by the kidney when blood is filtered from waste


how much liquid does the average adult take in daily

2300 ml

how much urine does the average adult release daily

1500 ml

range of urine produced

500 ml

how often is the blood in your body fully filtered

every 45 minutes

ingredients of urine per 1 liter

95% water, 20 grams urea, 1- 2 gs ammonia, 1-2 gs uric acid, 1-2 gs creatine

types of waste in urine

ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine

nitrogenous waste

wastes in urine

the 4 steps of urine production

filtration, reabsorption, secretion, excretion


Antidiuretic hormone

how does ADH control the excretory system

controls the amount of h2o in your urine; controls osmolarity of your blood; act on the collecting duct nephron; makes water leave the collecting duct and re enter blood when you are dehydrated

what inhibits the h2o release

stress, anxiety, fear, and caffeine.

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