Anatomy chap 3
Terms in this set (144)
When a receptor protein in a cell membrane acts as an enzyme, the receptor protein?
Activates a second messenger that acts as a signal molecule within the cell
Which of the following is not a characteristic of an ion channel?
It allows ions to move against their concentration gradient
When a cell uses energy to transport a particle through the cell membrane to an area of higher concentration, the cell is using?
The excretion of materials to the outside of a cell bu discharging them from vesicles is called?
The mechanism that prevents sodium ions from building up inside the cell is called?
The Sodium-Potassium Pump
Cell- Surface proteins allow a cell to ______ with other cells?
The _________________ requires energy to function?
Sodium Potassium Pump
When a substance moves from an area of low concentration to an area of higher concentration, the substance moves ____ its concentration gradient?
The movement of particles down their concentration gradient through carrier proteins is known as ____________?
A(n) _____________ amplifies the communication from a signal molecule?
A(n) ___________________ in the cell membrane may be opened or closed?
Gated Ion Channel
Describe the electrical charge inside and outside a typical cell. Then explain how this affects an ion's ability to move into the cell.
In a typical cell the outside is slightly positive and the inner is slightly negative. If an ion is negative it will diffuse out of the cell in the ion channels and the opposite for positive
Suppose you want to explain a concentration gradient to someone. Create a scenario that illustrates passive transport down the concentration gradient,
Somebody sets pizza down in the kitchen. The people closer to it, smell it quicker than others far away
Using your understanding of osmosis, describe why putting salt on a pork chop before cooking it on a grill is likely to result in a dry, tough piece of meat
Adding salt will cause the meat to be dry because all the water through osmosis is getting evaporated
how is facilitated diffusion different from the other passive transport processes?
Facilitated diffusion is movement through Carrier Proteins
How does a cell consume a food particle that is too large to pass through a protein channel?
The cell consumes a big food particle through endocytosis
Does not require energy from the cell
Difference in the concentration of a substance across a space
Concentration of a substance is equal throughout a space
movement of a substance down the substance's concentration gradient
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis
causes a cell to swell because of osmosis
Produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis
transport protein through which ions can pass
protein used to transport specific substances
Passive transport using carrier proteins
Movement of a substance against the substance's concentration gradient
Sodium- potassium pump?
Carrier protein used in active transport
movement of a substance by a vesicle to the inside of a cell
movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell
binds to a signal molecule, enabling the cell to respond to the signal molecule
acts a a signal molecule in the cytoplasm
Movement of a water down its concentration gradient
transports sugars and amino acids down their concentration gradient
forces excess water out of cell
If the free water molecule concentration outside a cell is higher than that inside the cell, the solution outside of the cell is>
If someone spills perfume in one room, people can soon smell it in a nearby room. Whi9ch of the following is this an example of?
Molecules that can diffuse across the mebrane include?
many nonpolar molecules
Ions function in your body help?
nerve cells send electrical signals
The diffusion of ions accross the membrane is influenced by which for the following?
the electrical charge of the ion
Ion Channels may open or close in response to?
stretching of the membrane, a change in electrical charge, the binding of a molecule to the ion channel
carries information for active transport
cell membrane forms a pouch around a substance
interferes with the binding of signal molecules?
transport of a substance against its concentration gradient
supplies the energy for active transport
What is an example of active transport?
Sodium- Potassium Pump
The sodium potassium pump transports?
sodium ions out of the cell
Without sodium-potassium pumps, cells?
might burst and might not be able to transport sugars as efficiently
What substance are too large for carrier proteins?
When a signal molecule binds to a receptor?
the permeability of the receiving cell membrane may be changed
What is the best term to describe a membrane which allows certain molecules to pass through it while other molecules cant?
Selectively permeable membrane
The simplest type of passive transport?
What type of environment would cause a cell to lose water/
What is the most abundant molecule in a cell membrane/
What is the term for the movement of water molecules along the concentration gradient?
What plant structure protects a plant cell in a hypotonic solution?
Identify a cell whose function depends on the movement of ions across its membrane?
Which type of cell transport requires ATP?
What is the English Translation for HYPER?
What is the English translation for iso?
This molecule is moved against the gradient into the cell by way of a pump?
A ______________- is one type of signal molecule which cells use to communicate with each other?
When organisms respond to a changing external environment by maintain their normal internal environment it is called?
What is the English translation for tonos?
This structure, in the cell membrane, is designed to receive information from the extracellular environment?
The model for the structure of a cell membrane is called/
The Fluid Mosaic
The movement of a substance into an cell by way of a vesicle is called?
When the amount of a substance is the same on both sides of the membrane, the substance has reached a state of?
NA+,K+, and Ca2+ are impermeable to the membrane but vital to cell function. How do they get in and out of the cell?
What type if solution allows water to move back and forth across the membrane with no net gain or loss of water in the cell?
What type of cell transport is characterized by the movement of mo0lecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration along an imaginary slope called the concentration gradient?
What type of biomolecule is required for faciltiated diffusion>
ATP is ______ energy?
What is the fate of an animal cell in a hypotonic environment?
A pump is a _____ that acts as a pump, moving molecules against its gradient?
In contrast with the extracellular environment, the inside of the cells has a ____ charge?
How are cells microscopic factories?
-require raw materials and energy to produce products
-products are used inside/outside the cell
- hear and other waste products are generated
What keeps the cells from being bombarded with all the food molecules you eat?
selectively permeable membrane
What type of transport does homeostasis use?
passive and active transport
What are membranes impermeable to?
-polar molecules, including H20
-large molecules like glucose and amino acids
What are membranes permeable to?
What is Passive transport?
random motion of molecules using kinetic energy
Example of Passive Transport?
Spraying perfume in an air vent; food coloring
What direction does Passive Transport go ?
High to low WITH the concentration gradient
What type of energy does active transport use?
What direction does Passive transport go>
low to high AGAINST the concentration gradient
What does the Cell membrane let in and let out?
Energy and raw materials in and products and wastes out
What is Equilibrium?
molecules will continue to move from high to low until they are equal on both sides on the membrane
What is another name for Equilibrium?
What are the types of PAssive Transport?
3. Facilitated Diffusion
What does Diffusion involve?
gases: CO2 and O2
What does Osmosis involve?
What does Facilitated diffusion involve?
this type of passive transport helps
What direction does Osmosis go?>
High to low
What is the percent of water in an organism?
What occurs in aqueous intracellular and extracellular environments?
the chemical reactions that sustain life
What are solutions composed of?
solutes and water
Will water move in or out of the cell?
It depends on the concentration of solutes on either side of the membrane
What are the 3 different types of solutions?
What is a Hypertonic solution?
more solute less water
What is a Hypotonic solution?
less solute more water
Cell gets BIGGER
What is an Isotonic solution>
equal solutes on both sides
equal amounts of water inside and out
has more solutes than the cell- less water so water moves OUT of the cell
What does Hypertonic environments cause?
a drop in pressure or turgor pressure (shrivels)
loss of water pressure
What does Plasmolysis cause>
plants to wilt and animal cells to shrivel
has less solute than the cell- more water so water moves into the cell
cell gets big and bursts
What does a hypotonic environment do to a plant?
it gives it shape and support
equal solutes inside and outside the cell- no net flow in or out of the cell
molecules will move in and out but no net gain or loss of water
Lack a cell wall and will lyse in a hypotonic solution
cell will not burst in a hypotonic solution- cell wall
What are protozoans?
Unicellular aquatic animal-like organisms
What do Protozoans lack?
What keeps them from bursting in a water environment?
they have a contractile vacuole
What is a contractile vacuole/
pumps out excess water to maintain homeostasis. builds up contracts
What is an example of a contractile vacuole?
A sinking ship
What is osmoregulation?
things from a different water environment can adapt to another water environment
What would happen to a shark if it was placed in a freshwater aquarium?
Some sharks can live in both saltwater and freshwater
What are the 3 A's of Active Transport?
allows cells to maintain to maintain a low concentration of molecules
cells take in macromolecules and other particles by forming vesicles from the plasma mebrane
What are the 3 types of endocytosis?
3. Receptor mediated
What to think of with phagocytosis?
Phago my EGGO
What to think of with pinocytosis?
Takes in large molecules
examples: amoeba, cells, white blood cells
takes in small particles and extracellular fluid
low to high
receptor proteins on the plasma membrane pick up specific molecules from the extracellular environment
exports wastes and proteins
transport proteins that pump molecules against the gradient
What does membrane pumps require?
Sodium Potassium Pump?
creates an electronegative gradient that facilitates nerve impulses and facilitates with the diffusion of glucose into the cell
Facts about SPP?
sodium out (3) potassium in (2)
found in the cell membrane of prokaryotes
found in membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts
produces most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells
a protein that binds to a specific signal molecule tenabling the cell to respond to the signal molecule