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Classification & Structure [09] of Bones & Cartilage

Bone Markings, Classification of Bones, Gross Anatomy of a Typical Long Bone, Cartilages of the Skeleton
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Spine
Sharp, slender process
Tubercle
Small, rounded projection
Crest
Narrow ridge of bone
Tuberosity
Large rounded projection
Head
Structure supported on neck
Ramus
Armlike projection
Condyle
Rounded, articular projection
Articular
Of or relating to joints or to the structural components in a joint
Fissure
Narrow opening
Meatus
Canal-like structure
Foramen
Round or oval opening through a bone
Fossa
Shallow depression
Sinus
Air-filled cavity
Trochanter
Large, irregularly shaped projection
Epicondyle
Raised area on or above a condyle
Process
Projection or prominence
Flat bones
Generally thin, with two waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them
Sesamoid
Special types of short bones formed in tendons
Wormian bones
Tiny bones between cranial bones
Sutural
Wormian bones other name
Compact
Bone that looks smooth and homeogenous
Spongy
Bone composed of small trabeculae of bones and lots of open space
Long
Bones much longer than they are wide, generally consisting of a shaft with heads at either end
Short
Bones typically cube shaped, containing more spongy bone than compact bone.
Axial Skeleton
Those bones that lie around the body's center
Appendicular Skeleton
Bones of the limbs, or appendages
Projections or Processes
Bone markings that grow out from the bone and serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints
Depressions or Cavities
Indentations or openings in the bone that often serve as conduits for nerves and blood vessels
Diaphysis
Shaft of long bone
Periosteum
Fibrous membrane covering of long bone
Endosteum
Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts, inner bone surface
Periosteum
Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts, outer bone surface
Endosteum
Delicate membrane covering the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals of compact bone
Sharpey's Fibers
Fibers of the periosteum that penetrate into the bone, carry blood vessels and nerves.
Epiphysis
End of the long bone, composed of a thin layer of compact bone that encloses spongy bone
Epiphyseal plate
A thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of bone during youth
Epiphyseal lines
The barely discernible remnants of the epiphyseal plate after it's hyaline cartilage is replaced by bone.
Yellow marrow
Adipose tissue
Medullary
Central cavity of the long bone shaft
Red marrow
Confined to the interior of the epiphyses in adult bones; occupies spaces between the trabeculae of spongy bones
Epiphysis
Contains spongy bone in adults
Diaphysis
Made of compact bone
Red marrow
Site of blood cell formation
Concentric lamellae
Layers of bony matrix around a central canal
Lacunae
Site of osteocytes
Central Canal
Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves in compact bone
Haversian Canal
Other name for central canal
Canaliculi
Minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon
Matrix
Inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance
Elastic
Type of cartilage that supports the external ear
Fibrocartilage
Type of cartilage between the vertebrae
Hyaline
Type of cartilage that forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)
Elastic
Type of cartilage that forms the epiglottis
Hyaline
Type of cartilage forming the articular cartilages
Fibrocartilage
Type of cartilage that forms the meniscus
Meniscus
Padlike fibrocartilage in knee joint
Costal Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage connecting ribs to sternum
Hyaline
Type of cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum
Fibrocartilage
Type of cartilage thats the most effective at resisting compression
Elastic
The most springy and flexible type of cartilage
Hyaline
The most abundant type of cartilage
Hyaline
Cartilage that looks like frosted glass
Elastic
"Hyaline cartilage with more elastic fibers"
Ear, Epiglottis
Only two skeletal cartilages made of elastic cartilage
Fibrocartilage
Rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers
Fibrocartilage
Looks like a cartilage-dense regular connective tissue hybrid