53 terms

APUSH Reconstruction

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proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction 1863
1863 Lincoln issued this proclamation which provided a means of repatriating "those who resume their allegiance" even though the war was still in progress. To those who took an oath of loyalty, he was prepared to issue a full pardon, with some notable exceptions. Those exceptions he specifically listed in the proclamation so there would be no misunderstanding. He also provided guidelines for the systematic reestablishment of loyal state governments.
lincolns 10 percent plan
former states would be readmitted to the union if 10% of white voters took oath of loyalty to union
wade davis bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned. he thought it was too harsh and the confederate states wouldnt rejoin the union if these were the limitations
pocket veto
when a president kills a bill passed during the last 10 days congress is in session by simply refusing to act on it
thirteenth amendment
This Amendment was made to forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude both illegal. It could only be used as a punishment for crime. This Amendment was passed right before the end of the war and ratified later in 1865, after the war was over. The South had to ratify it to be readmitted to the Union.
andrew johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. 1865-69
presidential reconstruction
Andrew Johnson's plan for reconstruction which was less severe than Radical Reconstruction and only required that southerners swear allegiance to the Union and that states denounce their secession and ratify the 13th Amendment.
black codes
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers. these rcist codes restricted blacks civil right
freedmans bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools. for blacks and poor whites
joint committee on reconstruction
committee appointed by congress to decide what to do about southern reconstruction. Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans.
senator lyman trumbull (r, il)
radical republican Senator from ILL who pushed to get rid of the black codes, lots of support from republicans, also pushed for the continuance of freedman's bureau however johnson vetoed it. Next Senator tried to make blacks US citizens, and have all the same rights, Johnson vetoes again and is overridden
civil rights act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
fourteenth amendment 1866
the constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
swing around the circle
speaking campaign of US President Andrew Johnson in which he tried to gain support of his mild Reconstruction policies before the midterm election of 1866. just alienated ppl. didnt get support against the 14th amendment he wanted
race riots in memphis and new orleans (1866)
tensions between blacks and whites, Beginning in 1865, freedmen organized black conventions, political meetings at which they protested ill treatment
and demanded equal rights. These meetings occurred
in a climate of violence. Race riots erupted in major
southern cities, such as Memphis in May 1866 and in
New Orleans two months later. Even when Congress
imposed military rule, ex-Confederates did not feel
defeated.
southern homestead act
Largely unsuccessful law passed in 1866 that gave black people preferential access to 45 million acres of public lands in five southern states
congressional (radical) reconstruction
-Thaddeus Stevens/Charles Sumner: Punish the South
-1868-1876
-Supported by military rule (South divided into five military districts)
-Civil rights bills passed
-States must ratify the 14th Amendment (extended citizenship to former slaves)
-State constitutions include a guarantee or full suffrage to freedmen
-15th Amendment (right to vote for freedmen)
military reconstruction act of 1867
imposed martial law on the south; also called for new state constitutional conventions and forced the states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates. Also required each state to ratify the 14th amendment
thaddeus stevens
Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress who was devoted to a stringent and punitive Reconstruction effort. Worked towards equality for Southern blacks. pennylvanian congressman
army appropriations act (march 1867)
required the president to issue military orders through a commanding general, a figure who could be removed only by Senate action; Radical Republicans believed that increasing their influence within the U.S. Army was a further means of controlling the course of Reconstruction. also meant to control the unruly president johnson
tenure of office act (march 1867)
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
edwin stanton
Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. memeber of johnsons cabinet loyal to radical republicans. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.
ulysses s. grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
fifteenth amendment 1869
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners or supported republicans
hiram revels
Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded. was a minister
blanche bruce
An American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
ku klux klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
three enforcement acts
In 1870 and 1871 Congress adopted these acts that outlawed terrorist societies and allowed the government to use its army against them. This expanded the nautional authority of the government. THey defined crimes that aimed to deprive citizens of their civil and political rights as federal offenses than violations of state law. aka ku klix klan act
amnesty act
an 1872 United States federal law that removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most of the secessionists who rebelled in the American Civil War, except for some 500 military leaders of the Confederacy. The original restrictive Act was passed by the United States Congress on May 1866. brought back the officeholders from before the war, led to decline of southern republican support
civil rights act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
sharecropping
A system used on southern farms after the civil war in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
crop lien economy
Where rural merchants-often planters themselves-advanced supplies to tenants and sharecroppers and sold their crops to wholesalers or textile manufacturers. Secured their loans with lien-claim-on farmers' next crop. Farmers then had to pay part of crop to the land-owners and to the rural merchants which created a cycle of poverty and indebtedness that linked them to sharecropping and to their superiors so that it was reminiscent of slavery.
election of 1868
The Republicans nominated General Grant for the presidency in 1868. The Republican Party supported the continuation of the Reconstruction of the South, while Grant stood on the platform of "just having peace."The Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour. Grant won the election of 1868.
horatio seymour
Nominated by the Democrats In the 1868 election. Militant platform renouncing Reconstruction acts. VP Frank Blair. Did well in the South, but lost to Grant. governor ny
jay gould and james fisk
Obtained the help of President Grant's brother-in-law in a scheme to corner the gold market and try to cause gold inflation
schuyler colfax
vp during grant's first term was involved in credit moblier fraud
credit mobilier scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company's stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
whiskey ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
indian ring
Grant's Secretary of War, William W. Belknap was impeached for accepting bribes to award fraudulent contracts to companies wanting to do business on the Indian reservations.
grantism
A 19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age. Which included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.
boss tweed
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
sewards folly
many criticized William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars, calling it his folly.
liberal republicans
Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. focused on helping stop political corruption. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.
horace greeley
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver)
jay cooke
financed civil war bonds. A New York financier who was interested in the OSN Railroads. When he acquired the charter of the North Pacific, he persuaded Congress to enlarge the land grants 60 miles on each side of the railroad, and he allowed timber companies to sell of these lands.His bankruptcy caused a national depression.
election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes.
rutherford b hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the hayes-tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in us history. ended reconstruction
samuel tilden
Hayes' opponent in the 1876 presidential race, he was the Democratic nominee who had gained fame for putting Boss Tweed behind bars. He collected 184 of the necessary 185 electoral votes.
home rule
ability to run state governments without the interference of the federal government
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river and hayes was awarded the contested presidency