How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

237 terms

Chapter 14 Microbiology MasteringMicrobiology

STUDY
PLAY
A disease that occurs only occasionally is a _____ disease.
sporadic
Which of the following statements is true?
Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.
Which period of a disease is characterized by a return to health?
Period of convalescence
A disease transmitted by a flea is an example of ____ transmission./12708930/edit/
vector
A lichen is a symbiotic relationship between an alga and a fungus. The fungus protects the alga, whereas the alga provides carbohydrates for the fungus. This is an example of _____.
mutualism
Which of the following is not a reservoir of infection?
They are often primary infections.
Lyme disease is disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi in the US. It is transmitted by tick bites, and is characterized by recurring fever, headaches, fatigue and depression over a long period of time. Based on the above information, how is Lyme disease transmitted?
By vectors
A parasitic bacterium ______.
damages its host
A new disease, Hannemannelosis, appears with 16 reported cases in March, 2008. The number of reported cases in 2008 is as follows:

February -0
March - 16
April - 12
May - 10
June - 8
July - 2
August - 0
September - 0
October -0

What is the prevalence of Hannemannelosis in May 2008?
38
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called _____.
epidemiology
The major significance of Koch's work was that ____.
microorganisms cause disease
A disease that occurs worldwide is a ______ disease.
pandemic
Lupus is a disease of the immune system, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. The signs and symptoms are mild for years, often going undiagnosed, getting progressively more severe over time. How is lupus classified?
Chronic
How can health care workers reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infections?
Practice more stringent aseptic techniques.
Ringworm is a mycosis (fungal disease) that affects the surface of the skin. What type of infection is ring worm?
Local infection
An infection confined to a specific area of the body is a(n) _____ infection.
local
Sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection. Signs and symptoms include fever, chills, and shock. Sepsis is an example of a _____ infection.
systemic
Which of these terms refer to "how a disease develops"?
Pathogenesis
Expected prevalence of a disease is _____.
the expected occurrence of a disease based on past observations
A new disease, Hannemannelosis, appears with 16 reported cases in March, 2008. The number of reported cases in 2008 is as follows:

February - 0
March - 16
April - 12
May - 10
June - 8
July - 2
August - 0
September - 0
October - 0

What is the incidence of Hannemannelosis in May 2008?
10
When aerosols containing pathogens spread disease from a distance of less than one meter, it is considered ______.
contact transmission
A food worker wasn't wearing gloves when making your sandwich, and as a result you contracted hepatitis. This is an example of ____.
Vehicle transmission
A patient is vulnerable to secondary infections during a disease phase that may last from less than 24 hours to several days. What is the name of this stage of disease?
Period of decline
Which of the following statements is true?
Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.
Which of these statements about nosocomial infections is not true?
They are often primary infections.
A commensal bacterium ____.
may be an opportunistic pathogen
Which of these is not a limitation of Koch's Postulates?
Some pathogens cause severe symptoms.
A disease that is constantly present in a population is a _____ disease.
endemic
What is a disease referred to when symptoms develop rapidly and it runs its course rapidly?
Acute infection
Which of the following statements is true regarding hand washing?
Frequent and proper hand washing should be routinely done by patients and by healthcare workers, both prior to and after interaction.
An organism that lives at the expense of another organism is a _____.
parasite
Which is an example of vehicle disease transmission?
The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner.
A disease that is acquired by many people in a relatively short period of time is a _____ disease.
epidemic
Why are invasive procedures likely to increase the risk of nosocomial infections?
These procedures allow microbes from the skin to enter the bloodstream of the patient.
A researcher studies a disease by comparing a diseased group of people to a healthy group. This is an example of _____ epidemiology.
analytical
A needlestick is an example of ______ transmission.
fomite
Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
Secondary infection - a long lasting infection
Sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection. Signs and symptoms include fever, chills, and shock. Sepsis is an example of a _____ infection.
systemic
Giardiasis is a disease that is commonly contracted by drinking fecal contaminated water. This is an example of _____ transmission.
vehicle
Regarding the concept of pathology, infection, and disease, which statement is false?
A great majority of microorganisms are pathogenic.
You are feeling ill. You tell the doctor that you feel tired all the time. You are describing your _____.
symptoms
A person got infected from touching a doorknob that a sick person had sneezed on. This is an example of ___.
indirect contact transmission
Ringworm is a mycosis (fungal disease) that affects the surface of the skin. What type of infection is ring worm?
local
A sexually transmitted disease is an example of ______ transmission.
direct contact
Which of the following is a fomite?
a pen
What function do the different photosynthetic pigments of algae provide?
Allows algae to use different wavelengths of light.
What is the definitive host for Plasmodium, the causitive organism of malaria?
The Anopheles mosquito
Microspora and Archaezoa are unusual eukaryotes because they ____.
lack mitochondria
By what feature are algae classified?
By their structure and pigments.
The _____ is the feeding and growing stage of protozoa.
trophozoite
Which of the following is not a characteristic of parasitic platyhelminths?
They have a complete digestive system.
Which statement is not true about algae?
All are unicellular.
A roundworm is a ______.
nematode
Which of the following phyla of fungi produce mushrooms as part of their life cycle?
Basidiomycota
Ciliophora, a phylum of Protozoa, has ______ as a characteristic feature?
Cilia
Fungi are grouped into the following groups except ______.
Hyphae
Mycetoma is a chronic, inflammatory swelling of the soft tissue, often localized on the foot. The fungal pathogen, Madurella mycetomatis, often enters the host deep into the tissue on a wood splinter or a thorn. What type of mycosis is mycetoma?
Subcutaneous
Lice have 6 legs, therefore it is a(n) _____.
insect
Which of the following statements about fungi are not true?
All fungi are unicellular.
Transmission of helminthic diseases to humans is usually through ____.
feces
Microspora and Archaezoa are unusual eukaryotes because they ____.
lack mitochondria
Dictyostelium is a protozoa that has a life cycle that is similar to molds. What type of slime mold is Dictyostelium?
Cellular slime mold
Which statement regarding the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax (the apicomplexan that causes malaria) is false?
Human beings are the definitive hosts.
Tinea versicolos is a fungus infection that commonly affects the outermost surface of the skin of young people, especially on the chest, back, and upper arms. How would Tinea versicolos be classified?
Superficial mycosis
Which of the following statements is not true?
Lichen are parasites.
A helminth that has both male and female sexual organs is ____.
monoecious
Which statement is not true about algae?
All are unicellular.
Spores not enclosed in a sac are called _______.
conidiospores
A mite has 8 legs, therefore it is a(n) ________.
arachnid
Alexandrium is a free-floating plankton that produces a neurotoxin that can build up in shellfish, resulting in food poisoning. What phyla of algae does Alexandrium represent?
Dinoflagellates
Which of the following statements about viruses are true?
Viruses are not composed of cells.
Which of the following components is found in viruses?
nucleic acids
A virion is _____.
a complete, infectious virus particle
Most viruses have a broad host range.
false
Which of the following is not a method of culturing viruses?
In culture media
Which of the following is the best evidence for a three-domain system?
There are three distinctly different cell structures.
How are viroids different from viruses?
Viroids do not contain proteins.
A ______ is a virus for bacteria.
bacteriophage
How are viruses different from cells?
They require a host in order to reproduce.
The ability of a virus to infect an organism is regulated by ______.
the ability of the virus to attach
Most enveloped animal viruses acquire their envelopes during the _______ stage of their life cycle.
release
A bacterium that exhibits new properties or abilities due to the presence of a prophage is said to have undergone ______
phage conversion
The most common method used to identify bacteria is _____.
numerical testing
An oncogene is _____.
a part of the human genome
Normal cells that become tumor cells undergo _______.
transformation
Which of these are naked pieces of infectious RNA?
Viroids
The arrangement of organisms into taxa _______.
shows the relationships among organisms
In animal viruses, an envelope is acquired during which of the following steps?
Release
A ______ forms when the viral genome inserts into the host cell's chromosome.
provirus
Which cell structure is used to compare organisms?
Ribosomes
Viruses that can cause cancers are called ______.
oncogenic viruses
Which of these is not a characteristic of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)?
Microbes can be cultured quickly.
Which of these is an infectious protein?
Prion
When a virus enters a cell it must release its nucleic acid into the host cell. This is called ____.
uncoating
It's often difficult to determine a viral cause of cancer because ____.
most of the viral particles of one infection don't cause cancer
Phage typing is based on the fact that ______.
bacterial viruses attack specific cells
How do enveloped viruses enter a host cell?
Fusion of membranes
What is the hallmark of dichotomous keys?
They consist of a series of paired statements, in which only one statement of each pair applies to a given organism.
Some viruses cause disease shortly after infection. These are characteristic of a(n) ______ viral infection.
acute
View the figure above of a nucleic acid hybridization experiment. Which figure shows the most closely related organisms?
b (looks like long filament)
Biochemical tests are used to determine _____.
enzymatic activities
Which of the following statements about viruses are true?
Viruses are not composed of cells.
Which bacteriophage life cycle is responsible for transduction?
Lysogenic cycle
Which of these is not a means of identifying viruses?
Ribotyping
Organism A has 70 % G+C, Organism B as 40 % G+C. Which of the following can you conclude?
The two organisms are unrelated.
In the scientific name Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter is the _____.
genus
The ability of a virus to infect an organism is regulated by ______.
the ability of the virus to attach
Which of the following statements about viruses are true?
Viruses are not composed of cells.
View the figure above. Which of these is a complex virus?
B: The f**ked up, mosquito-looking one.
A viral genome may consist of ____.
DNA or RNA
If you are trying to find the evolutionary history of an organism, you are _________ the organism.
classifying
Herpesvirus is an enveloped polyhedral virus that infects human nerve cells. It contains a single stranded DNA genome. What mechanism does herpesvirus use to exit a cell after maturation?
Budding
How is a prion different from a virus?
Prions do not contain nucleic acids.
View the figure above of a DNA fingerprint. Which two organisms are most closely related?
1 and 3
It's often difficult to determine a viral cause of cancer because ____.
most of the viral particles of one infection don't cause cancer
In which of these viral infections would you expect to see viral particles, even if the symptoms are not severe?
Persistent infection
Some viruses, such as Human Herpes Virus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms; these are called _____.
latent viruses
Which of these is not a characteristic of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)?
Microbes can be cultured quickly.
During the lysogenic cycle the bacteriophage can insert into the host cell chromosome and remain latent. The inserted DNA is known as a ____.
prophage
Nontoxic strains of Vibrio cholerae can become toxic when they are in the human inestine with toxic strains of bacteria. How can toxin genes be acquired?
Transduction
Which of these techniques does not employ DNA?
ELISA
Which of these is a method of growing animal viruses in the laboratory?
ALL OF THE ABOVE. In live animals, In embryonated eggs, In cell culture
Which of the following is not based on nucleic-acid hybridization?
Western blotting
_____ viruses generally have an elaborate coat structure, and may have other structures attached to the coat.
Complex
Why do algae have different photosynthetic pigments?
To allow the use of different wavelengths of light.
If Echinococcus, a protozoa, reproduces asexually in humans, humans are the _____.
intermediate host
Which type of asexual spore is not enclosed in a sac?
Conidiospore
Which of the following phyla of fungi have their spores enclosed within a sac?
Ascomycota
The ____ provides the holdfast in a lichen.
fungus
Parasitic helminths differ from free-living helminths in that parasitic helminths _____.
have a complex reproductive system
______ best describes a filamentous mass of fungi.
Mycelium
Pneumocystosis is an infection of the lungs by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii. What type of mycosis is pneumocystosis?
Systemic
In a lichen, which of these is provided by the fungus?
Protection
Which of these is not a method of transmission of nematodes?
Eating of spores.
The ____ describes the body of a fungus.
thallus
View the figure above of the incidence of influenza in a typical year. Which letter on the graph shows the epidemic level?
A. The top line (highest)
Which does not contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?
Gram-negative cell walls.
View the figure above of the incidence of influenza in a typical year. Which letter on the graph shows the endemic level?
D. Bottom line
Hypertension, aka high blood pressure, is a disease in which the blood pressure is chronically high. Its causes include a poor diet, stress, and genetics. How is hypertension classified?
Non-communicable disease
Which of the following can act as a reservoir of infection?
ALL OF THE ABOVE: A sick person, a healthy person, a sick animal
The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the ____.
mucous membranes of the respiratory tract
Which of the following is not a reservoir of infection?
(NONE OF THE ABOVE) A sick person, a healthy person, a sick animal
A disease that is constantly present in a population is a _____ disease.
endemic
The formation of a protective capsule by a protist is called
encystment
Which of the following statements about fungi are not true?
All fungi are unicellular
the fungal infection of the skin
cutaneous mycosis
Which of these is not a method of reproduction in protozoa?
sporulation
Which phylum of Protozoa is photosynthetic?
Euglenozoa
Algae reproduce...
both sexually and asexually
a fluke is a
platyhelminth
All protists are
photosynthetic
Macrocystis is an algae that grow into large structures, some over 50 meters tall. What phyla of algae does it represent?
Brown Algae
In the sixth segment of the animation, why is the disease epidemic in North America?
The disease occurs at a higher rate than what would normally be expected in this region.
In the last segment of the animation, how many regions of the world experience the pandemic during April of year four?
Five
If a disease occurs at a fairly stable rate, it is said to be
endemic
Which of the following would be considered a fomite?
An infected toy
Which of the following statements concerning pathology, infection, and disease is true?
Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease.
Which of the following is an example of the symbiotic relationship known as mutualism?
E. coli within the large intestine
Koch's postulates established criteria for proving that a specific organism causes a specific disease. Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria given by Koch's postulates?
The pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animals and must be different from the original organism.
Which of the following is classified as a latent disease?
shingles
A patient acquires an infection by touching a contaminated door handle. Which mode of transmission best describes this scenario?
indirect contact transmission
A dog develops a diarrheal disease after drinking water from a creek during a hike with his owner. Which of the following best describes this method of disease transmission?
vehicle transmission
Plague is transmitted through the bite of an infected flea. Which of the following best describes this mode of transmission?
vector transmission
Which of the following is a fungal zoonosis that can be transmitted by direct contact?
ringworm
Which of the following would be an example of disease transmission via INDIRECT contact?
A student sneezes on her test booklet. The instructor grades it and catches her cold.
According to the animation, surgical infections account for what percentage of nosocomial infections?
20%
What type of nosocomial infection is likely to arise from intravenous catheterizations?
Bacteremia
How might a patient who is not being treated with an antibiotic still be exposed to an antibiotic?
Antibiotics can be used in aerosols, thereby entering the environment.
Why are invasive procedures likely to increase the risk of nosocomial infections?
These procedures allow microbes from the skin to enter the bloodstream of the patient.
How can health care workers reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infections?
Practice more stringent aseptic techniques
The health of the patient
should be the primary concern of the healthcare worker.
How can surgeons help to limit nosocomial infections?
They should perform surgeries and invasive procedures only when absolutely necessary.
If a patient notices a healthcare worker not following suggested precautions
they should immediately bring it to the attention of the healthcare worker.
Which of the following characteristics of a catheter should be considered, to help minimize the spread of nosocomial infections?
Single-use
Which of the following statements is true regarding hand washing?
Frequent and proper hand washing should be routinely done by patients and by healthcare workers, both prior to and after interaction.
Epidemiology is defined as the study of
where and when a disease occurs, and how it is transmitted.
What is the role of epidemiology?
To learn how to treat and prevent various diseases.
Expected prevalence of a disease is
the expected occurrence of a disease based on past observations.
In the sixth segment of the animation, why is the disease epidemic in North America?
The disease occurs at a higher rate than what would normally be expected in this region.
If a disease occurs at a fairly stable rate, it is said to be
endemic
Which of the following would be considered a fomite?
An infected toy
Which of the following would be considered a vector?
A fly carrying disease from fecal matter to food
When aerosols containing pathogens spread disease from a distance of less than one meter, it is considered
contact transmission.
Which of the following is considered a major category of transmission of disease?
Contact, vehicle, and vector transmission
Which is an example of vehicle disease transmission?
The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner
The following choices list several types of diseases, along with factors that may contribute to their emergence. Which disease and associated factor do NOT match?
emergence of avian influenza A (H5N1): use of antibiotics
As a health care worker, I am keenly aware of how important it is to avoid harming my patients. I worry about inadvertently transmitting an infectious disease to an already compromised individual. According to the CDC, what is the MOST important thing I can do to avoid this?
Wash my hands before interacting with any patient.
Which of the following statements about the development of infectious diseases is correct?
The period of convalescence is the time during which the person regains health and fully recovers (back to the pre-disease state).
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by infection with a protozoan. In certain tropical regions, malaria is constantly present. We would say that malaria is a(n) _________ disease in these regions.
endemic
One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in
increased susceptibility to disease.
During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever 39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.


The etiologic agent of the disease in the situation is
Coxiella burnetii.
A commensal bacterium
may also be an opportunistic pathogen.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship.
Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota
are present for a relatively short time.
Which of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?
bacteria causing disease
The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of ______.
the normal microbiota
The major significance of Robert Koch's work is that
microorganisms cause disease.
Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?
septicemia
Which of the following is NOT a verified exception in the use of Kochs postulates?
Some diseases are noncommunicable.
Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT?
epidemic: a disease that is endemic across the world
Focal infections initially start out as
local infections.
The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can directly attributed to
vaccinations
Which of the following is NOT a communicable diseases?
tetanus
Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT?
A disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time before producing symptoms is referred to as
latent
The graph in the figure shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates a(n)
epidemic level.
Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor of disease?
None of the answers are correct; all of these are predisposing factors of disease.
In which of the following diseases can gender be considered a viable predisposing factor?
urinary tract infections
In which of the following patterns of disease does the patient experience no signs or symptoms?
incubation and convalescence
If a prodromal period exists for a certain disease, it should occur prior to
illness
Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?
botulism
Biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission
involves specific diseases.
Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection?
None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection.
Which of the following is a fomite?
a hypodermic needle
Which of the following statements about biological transmission is FALSE?
Houseflies are an important vector.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
None of the pairs is mismatched.
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of which form of disease transmission?
vehicle transmission
A needlestick is an example of
fomite
During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever 39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.


the situation is an example of
a zoonosis.
During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever 39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.


The method of transmission of the disease in the situation was
vehicle.
Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis?
None of the answers is correct; all of these are zoonoses.
A nosocomial infection is
acquired during the course of hospitalization.
Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?
gram-negative cell walls
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE?
The patient was infected before hospitalization.
Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections?
All of the answers are correct.
Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a
nosocomial infection.
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the emergence of infectious diseases?
The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
The M in MRSA stands for mannitol.
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
epidemiology.
The CDC is located in
Atlanta, GA.
Which of the following best describes why West Nile Virus is considered to be an emerging infectious disease?
West Nile virus outbreaks have increased in number and affected areas since 1937.
During his research on West Nile virus, Bill learned that this virus is placed within a functional grouping known as arboviruses. What is meant by the term arbovirus?
Arboviruses get their name because they are typically arthropod-borne viruses that remain in nature because of biological transmission between susceptible hosts by blood-feeding arthropods, such as mosquitoes.
If mosquitoes are the mode of transmission for West Nile virus, why did the students in Bill's virology class focus on finding the virus in the dead birds rather than collecting mosquitoes to examine?
The students tried to isolate and identify West Nile virus from birds because they are an amplifying host for the virus, making it more likely that the virus can be isolated from these animals.
The brain tissue of the birds indicated the possibility of encephalitis. What is encephalitis, and why should this type of infection cause concern among health care professionals?
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain tissue. It is a concern to health care professionals because an infection in the brain means the virus has breached protective measures.
Which of the following is the best mode of controlling the spread of West Nile infections?
Limit exposure to mosquitoes to prevent the transmission of West Nile virus.
What features of West Nile virus make it an emerging disease of special concern?
Emerging infectious diseases are defined as ones that are new or changing, have increased in incidence in the recent past, or show a potential to increase in the near future. Given the increase in number of cases of West Nile virus encephalitis and avian death since it appeared in New York City in 1999, this virus meets the definition of an emerging infectious disease. Over half of known emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, mainly of viral origin, and are likely to be vector-borne. West Nile virus is all of these things, and infections with this virus must be reported to the CDC for tracking. The CDC works along with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to address issues related to emerging infectious diseases. Together, these agencies have set goals for investigating, monitoring, and controlling emerging infectious diseases worldwide.
Emergence of infectious diseases can be caused by a variety of factors. Which one listed below is related to human behavior?
..